[30] Dante's choice appears to be based on Bernard's contemplative mysticism, his devotion to Mary, and his reputation for eloquence. After that, Bernard spent most of his time in Italy persuading the Italians to pledge allegiance to Innocent. Bernard expanded upon Anselm of Canterbury's role in transmuting the sacramentally ritual Christianity of the Early Middle Ages into a new, more personally held faith, with the life of Christ as a model and a new emphasis on the Virgin Mary. St. Bernard: De Maria numquam satis. Lothair II became Innocent's strongest ally among the nobility. It was at this council that Bernard traced the outlines of the Rule of the Knights Templar who soon became the ideal of Christian nobility. In the meantime Cluny established a reform, and Abbot Suger, the minister of Louis VI of France, was converted by the Apology of Bernard. S-a născut într-o familie de nobili din nord estul ținutului Bourgogne în localitatea Fontaine, lângă Dijon. (Of Mary, never enough!) Bernard considered lectio divina and contemplation guided by the Holy Spirit the keys to nourishing Christian spirituality. 978-90-429-3132-9. This Bernard named Claire Vallée, or Clairvaux, on 25 June 1115, and the names of Bernard and Clairvaux soon became inseparable. He is often cited for saying that Mary Magdalene was the Apostle to the Apostles. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Anacletus died of "grief and disappointment" in 1138, and with him the schism ended. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Believing himself at last secure in his cloister, Bernard devoted himself with renewed vigour to the composition of the works which won for him the title of "Doctor of the Church". As in the olden scene, the cry "Deus vult! [9], Again reproaches arose against Bernard and he was denounced, even in Rome. Bernard, informed of this by William of St-Thierry, is said to have held a meeting with Abelard intending to persuade him to amend his writings, during which Abelard repented and promised to do so. In June 1145, at the invitation of Cardinal Alberic of Ostia, Bernard traveled in southern France. [3] In the year 1128, Bernard attended the Council of Troyes, at which he traced the outlines of the Rule of the Knights Templar,[a] which soon became the ideal of Christian nobility. Whether you are traveling alone, as a couple, or with your entire family, your visit to Cloisters of the Monastery of Saint Bernard de Clairvaux will be a highlight of your holiday – and your hotel should be too! [7] Bernard's testimony was so irresistible that 30 of his friends, brothers, and relatives followed him into the monastic life. Conrad III and his son Henry died the same year. Moved by his burning words, many Christians embarked for the Holy Land, but the crusade ended in miserable failure.[6]. Hasten then to expiate your sins by victories over the Infidels, and let the deliverance of the holy places be the reward of your repentance." selected, with a preface, by. That dog breed did not receive its namesake from St. Bernard of Clairvaux. Bernard soon saw one of his disciples elected Pope Eugene III. Bernard's great de­sire was to excel in lit­er­a­ture in order to take up the study of Sa­cred Scrip­ture, which later on be­came, as it were, his own tongue. Both his parents were exceptional models of virtue. Deputations of the bishops of Armenia solicited aid from the pope, and the King of France also sent ambassadors. The first to die was Suger in 1152, of whom Bernard wrote to Eugene III, "If there is any precious vase adorning the palace of the King of Kings it is the soul of the venerable Suger". Bernard set out to convince these other regions to rally behind Innocent. Faith and morals were taken seriously, but without priggishness. Bernard's letters to William of St-Thierry also express his apprehension about confronting the preeminent logician. Born in what is now considered France at Fontaines near Dijon in 1090 or 1091, his father, Tecelin or Tesselin, was a knight who died in the First Crusade, as well as a friend and vassal of the Duke of Burgundy. Pope Innocent II died in the year 1143. Cistercians honour him as the founder of the order because of the widespread activity which he gave to the order.[13]. After writing a eulogy for the new military order of the Knights Templar, he would write about the fundamentals of Christian spiritual life, namely the contemplation and imitation of Christ, which he expressed in his sermons “The Steps of Humility” and “The Love of God.”. [17] Pope Eugenius came in person to France to encourage the enterprise. [6], Bernard was instrumental in re-emphasizing the importance of lectio divina and contemplation on Scripture within the Cistercian order. By 1119 the Cistercians had a charter approved by Pope Calixtus II for nine abbeys under the primacy of the abbot of Cîteaux. As in the First Crusade, the preaching led to attacks on Jews; a fanatical French monk named Radulphe was apparently inspiring massacres of Jews in the Rhineland, Cologne, Mainz, Worms, and Speyer, with Radulphe claiming Jews were not contributing financially to the rescue of the Holy Land. She, with the consent of her husband, soon took the veil in the Benedictine nunnery of Jully-les-Nonnains. Bernard had returned to France in June and was continuing the work of peacemaking which he had commenced in 1130. He is labeled the "Mellifluous Doctor" for his eloquence. Bernard wrote to the pope a few days afterwards, "Cities and castles are now empty. [6], Many miracles were attributed to his intercession. Bernard's "Prayer to the Shoulder Wound of Jesus" is often published in Catholic prayer books. At the Eucharist, he "admonished the Duke not to despise God as he did His servants". They are characterized by repetition of references to the Church Fathers and by the use of analogues, etymologies, alliterations, and biblical symbols, and they are imbued with resonance and poetic genius. Malachy died at Clairvaux in 1148. Bernard’s struggles with the flesh during this period may account for his early and rather consistent penchant for physical austerities. [5], Bernard had occupied himself in sending bands of monks from his overcrowded monastery into Germany, Sweden, England, Ireland, Portugal, Switzerland, and Italy. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Henry of Lausanne, a former Cluniac monk, had adopted the teachings of the Petrobrusians, followers of Peter of Bruys and spread them in a modified form after Peter's death. Bernard answered the letter by saying that, if he had assisted at the council, it was because he had been dragged to it by force, replying: Now illustrious Harmeric if you so wished, who would have been more capable of freeing me from the necessity of assisting at the council than yourself? It was a time when Bernard was experiencing what he apprehended as the divine in a mystical and intuitive manner. [5] During the absence of the Bishop of Langres, Bernard was blessed as abbot by William of Champeaux, Bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne. If thou art tossed by the waves of pride or ambition, detraction or envy, look to the star, call upon Mary. The movement found an ardent and powerful advocate in Peter Abelard. Bernard was only nineteen years of age when his mother died. L’Amour de Dieu et La Grâce et le Libre Arbitre | Bernard de Clairvaux | download | B–OK. [4] William yielded and the schism ended. It was this general chapter that gave definitive form to the constitutions of the order and the regulations of the Charter of Charity, which Pope Callixtus II confirmed on 23 December 1119. The passing of Pope Eugenius had struck the fatal blow by taking from him one whom he considered his greatest friend and consoler. Germany had decided to support Innocent through Norbert of Xanten, who was a friend of Bernard's. Soon afterwards, Henry of Lausanne was arrested, brought before the bishop of Toulouse, and probably imprisoned for life. In 1830 Pope Pius VIII bestowed upon Bernard the title "Doctor of the Church". That was St. Bernard of Menthon, not the Cistercian reformer of the 12 th Century. He protested his profound esteem for the Benedictines of Cluny whom he declared he loved equally as well as the other religious orders. Bernard of Clairvaux (French saint, Cistercian abbot, and writer, 1090-1153) The monks of the abbey of Cluny were unhappy to see Cîteaux take the lead role among the religious orders of the Roman Catholic Church. Having previously helped end the schism within the church, Bernard was now called upon to combat heresy. St. Bernard of Clairvaux (feast day is August 20th) [26], Bernard "noted centuries ago: the people who are their own spiritual directors have fools for disciples. Updates? There he explains how the sins of the crusaders were the cause of their misfortune and failures. At the solicitation of William of St. Thierry, Bernard defended the order by publishing his Apology which was divided into two parts. Returning to Molesme, he left the government of the new abbey to Alberic of Cîteaux, who died in the year 1109. The influence of the Abbot of Clairvaux was soon felt in provincial affairs. http://www.continents-interieurs.info/Michel-Cazenave/Bernard-de-Clairvaux There Bernard preached an immediate faith, in which the intercessor was the Virgin Mary. King and monk stood together, representing the combined will of earth and heaven. Leuven: Éditions de l’Institut supérieur de philosophie, Louvain-La-Neuve/Peeters, 2016. vii + 373 pp. His texts are prescribed readings in Cistercian congregations. He then returned to Clairvaux. The last years of Bernard's life were saddened by the failure of the Second Crusade he had preached, the entire responsibility for which was thrown upon him. There is perhaps no better way to enjoy Cloisters of the Monastery of Saint Bernard de Clairvaux than by booking a nearby Cloisters of the Monastery of Saint Bernard de Clairvaux hotel! €94 [29] Pope Pius VIII bestowed on him the title "Doctor of the Church". Born of Burgundian landowning aristocracy, Bernard grew up in a family of five brothers and one sister. Meanwhile, as Bernard’s health worsened, his spirituality deepened. [13] He was buried at the Clairvaux Abbey, but after its dissolution in 1792 by the French revolutionary government, his remains were transferred to Troyes Cathedral. [14], Having previously helped end the schism within the Church, Bernard was now called upon to combat heresy. Although the councils of Étampes, Würzburg, Clermont, and Rheims all supported Innocent, large portions of the Christian world still supported Anacletus. [4], Towards the close of the 11th century, a spirit of independence flourished within schools of philosophy and theology. Though not yet 30 years old, Bernard was listened to with the greatest attention and respect, especially when he developed his thoughts upon the revival of the primitive spirit of regularity and fervour in all the monastic orders. The next day, after Bernard made his opening statement, Abelard decided to retire without attempting to answer. During his youth, he did not escape trying temptations and around this time he thought of retiring from the world and living a life of solitude and prayer. The regimen was so austere that Bernard became ill, and only the influence of his friend William of Champeaux and the authority of the general chapter could make him mitigate the austerities. Omissions? Bernard of Clairvaux quotes Pope Honorius delegated Bernard to preach throughout France and Germany the renewal of the holy war. Bernard died at age sixty-three on 20 August 1153, after forty years spent in the cloister. This Bernard named Claire Vallée, of Clairvaux, on the 25th of June, 1115, and the names of Bernard and Clairvaux thence became inseparable. However, Innocent insisted on Bernard's company when he met with Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor. [10], In 1132, Bernard accompanied Innocent II into Italy, and at Cluny the pope abolished the dues which Clairvaux used to pay to that abbey. Hasten to appease the anger of heaven, but no longer implore its goodness by vain complaints. Bernard is Dante Alighieri's last guide, in Divine Comedy, as he travels through the Empyrean. From the beginning of the year 1153, Bernard felt his death approaching. During an absence from Clairvaux, the Grand Prior of the Abbey of Cluny went to Clairvaux and enticed away Bernard's cousin, Robert of Châtillon. "[27], Bernard's theology and Mariology continue to be of major importance, particularly within the Cistercian and Trappist orders. The Library of the Cistercian Abbey of Clairvaux at the time of Pierre de Virey (1472) PART A – ESSENTIAL INFORMATION 1. Bernard of Clairvaux (Latin: Bernardus Claraevallensis; 1090 - 20 August 1153), venerated as Saint Bernard, was a Burgundian abbot, and a major leader in the revitalization of Benedictine monasticism through the nascent Order of Cistercians.. Saint Bernard de Clairvaux “The Virgin’s name was Mary“, (Lk.1:27) which means ‘Star of the Sea.’This admirably befits the Virgin Mother. [18], There was at first virtually no popular enthusiasm for the crusade as there had been in 1095. During the absence of the Bishop of Langres, Bernard was blessed as abbot by William of Champeaux, Bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne, who saw in him the predestined man, servum Dei. However, Abelard continued to develop his teachings, which were controversial in some quarters. [12] Bernard lobbied the prelates on the evening before the debate, swaying many of them to his view. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Saint-Bernard-of-Clairvaux, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Saint Bernard of Menthon, Eternal Word Television Network - Biography of Staint Bernard of Clairvaux, The Catholic Encyclopedia - St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Franciscan Media - Biography of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, Bernard of Clairvaux - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Pope Benedict XVI. Gerard of Clairvaux, Bernard's older brother, became the cellarer of Citeaux. Bernard of Clairvaux on the Life of the Mind, John R. Sommerfeldt, Newman Press (2004) ISBN 0809142031 ISBN 9780809142033, p. 67 „I rejoiced so greatly when I heard of your answer in the case of some who seemed to be filled with extravagant ambition [17] The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states were threatened with similar disaster. He traveled to Sicily in 1137 to convince the king of Sicily to follow Innocent. After the council, the bishop of Verdun was deposed. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–1153) was a French abbot, confessor, saint, and Doctor of the Church. Biografie. For this, he was offered, and he refused, the archbishopric of Milan. Leclercq"S, . He was accused of being a monk who meddled with matters that did not concern him. After the council of Étampes, Bernard spoke with King Henry I of England, also known as Henry Beauclerc, about Henry I's reservations regarding Pope Innocent II. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. St Bernard of Clairvaux and Peter Abelard. It was eventually reassembled at 16711 West Dixie Highway, North Miami Beach, Florida, where it is now an Episcopal church and tourist attraction called Ancient Spanish … He could also commune with nature and say: Believe me, for I know, you will find something far greater in the woods than in books. He did not pledge allegiance to Innocent until 1135. He was sent to found a new abbey at an isolated clearing in a glen known as the Val d'Absinthe, about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) southeast of Bar-sur-Aube. St. Bernard of Clairvaux, the second founder of the Cistercians, the Mellifluous Doctor, the apostle of the Crusades, the miracle-worker, the reconciler of kings, the leader of peoples, the counselor of popes! He recalled the city of Milan to obedience to the pope as they had followed the deposed Anselm V, Archbishop of Milan. Bernard z Clairvaux, Saint Bernard de Clairvaux, ברנר מקלרבו, ברנרד מקלרבו, ברנר מקלרוו, 베르나르두스, 클레르보의 베르나르도, 클레르보의 성 베르나르도, 클레르보의 베르나르두스, San Bernardo de Claraval, Bernardo de Fontaine, Bernardo, San Bernardo di … Four brothers, an uncle, two cousins, an architect, and two seasoned monks under the leadership of Bernard endured extreme deprivations for well over a decade before Clairvaux was self-sufficient. Both the Henrician and the Petrobrusian faiths began to die out by the end of that year. Bernard's letter to the archbishop of Sens was seen as a real treatise, "De Officiis Episcoporum." Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny, answered Bernard and assured him of his great admiration and sincere friendship. He defended the rights of the Church against the encroachments of kings and princes, and recalled to their duty Henry Archbishop of Sens , and Stephen de Senlis, Bishop of Paris . Some of these, at the command of Innocent II, took possession of Tre Fontane Abbey, from which Eugene III was chosen in 1145. At his death, they numbered 343. On the death of Pope Honorius II on 13 February 1130, a schism arose in the church. Download books for free. In May of that year, the pope, supported by the army of Lothair III, entered Rome, but Lothair III, feeling himself too weak to resist the partisans of Anacletus, retired beyond the Alps, and Innocent sought refuge in Pisa in September 1133. About the same time, Bernard was visited at Clairvaux by Malachy, Primate of All Ireland, and a very close friendship formed between them. Bernard of Clairvaux is the attributed author of poems often translated in English hymnals as: The modern critical edition is Sancti Bernardi opera (1957–1977), edited by Jean Leclercq.[33][d]. Another time, an immense number of flies, that had infested the Church of Foigny, died instantly after the excommunication he made on them. [12] Bernard then denounced Abelard to the pope and cardinals of the Curia. There is not left one man to seven women, and everywhere there are widows to still-living husbands. He was an Abbot in the Cistercian order. [16] His preaching, aided by his ascetic looks and simple attire, helped doom the new sects. [8] In 1118 Trois-Fontaines Abbey was founded in the diocese of Châlons; in 1119 Fontenay Abbey in the Diocese of Autun; and in 1121 Foigny Abbey near Vervins, in the diocese of Laon. "[20], When Bernard was finished the crowd enlisted en masse; they supposedly ran out of cloth to make crosses. In a letter to the people of Toulouse, undoubtedly written at the end of 1146, Bernard calls upon them to extirpate the last remnants of the heresy. Bernard died at the age of 63, after 40 years as a monk. Abelard submitted without resistance, and he retired to Cluny to live under the protection of Peter the Venerable, where he died two years later. On 31 March, with King Louis VII of France present, he preached to an enormous crowd in a field at Vézelay, making "the speech of his life". The abbey became too small for its members and it was necessary to send out bands to found new houses. [5], In 1098 Robert of Molesme had founded Cîteaux Abbey, near Dijon, with the purpose of restoring the Rule of St Benedict in all its rigour. Conrad III of Germany and his nephew Frederick Barbarossa, received the cross from the hand of Bernard. At the age of nine, he was sent to a school at Châtillon-sur-Seine run by the secular canons of Saint-Vorles. "[18], Bernard then passed into Germany, and the reported miracles which multiplied almost at his every step undoubtedly contributed to the success of his mission. [6], So great was his reputation that princes and Popes sought his advice, and even the enemies of the Church admired the holiness of his life and the greatness of his writings. The first abbot of Clairvaux developed a rich theology of sacred space and music, writing extensively on both. The enthusiasm of the assembly of Clermont in 1095, when Peter the Hermit and Urban II launched the first crusade, was matched by the holy fervor inspired by Bernard as he cried, "O ye who listen to me! [6] In 1113 Stephen Harding had just succeeded Alberic as third Abbot of Cîteaux when Bernard and thirty other young noblemen of Burgundy sought admission into the monastery. [13] Bernard considered it his duty to send an apology to the Pope and it is inserted in the second part of his "Book of Considerations." Henry I was sceptical because most of the bishops of England supported Antipope Anacletus II; Bernard persuaded him to support Innocent. francis aidan gasquet, d.d. Early life and career 12/26/2020 In accordance with provincial restrictions to slow the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, all in-person Masses in the Archdiocese of Toronto are temporarily cancelled. The familial atmosphere engendered in him a deep respect for mercy, justice, and loyal affection for others. It contains the rules and laws for life within their chivalric military order. Deus vult! " The central elements of Bernard's Mariology are how he explained the virginity of Mary, the "Star of the Sea", and her role as Mediatrix. One time he restored the power of speech to an old man that he might confess his sins before he died. On the death of Honorius II, which occurred on 14 February 1130, a schism broke out in the Church by the election of two popes, Pope Innocent II and Antipope Anacletus II. Alert. [19] The full text has not survived, but a contemporary account says that "his voice rang out across the meadow like a celestial organ"[19]. Piety was his all, says Bossuet. At the General Audience on Wednesday, 4 November [2009], in St Peter's Square, the Holy Father spoke of the theological controversy between St Bernard of Clairvaux and Peter Abelard and of what we can learn from it today. Overview of St. Bernard of Clairvaux's life. The monastery, however, made rapid progress. But an even greater show of support came from the common people. He had a special devotion to the Virgin Mary, and he later wrote several works about the Queen of Heaven.[4]. Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux, was a monk who spent most of his time out of the cloister, a spiritual man who seemed always embroiled in politics and a man of peace who convinced thousands to fight and die for their faith. This led for a time to the exaltation of human reason and rationalism. Louis VI convened a national council of the French bishops at Étampes, and Bernard, summoned there by consent of the bishops, was chosen to judge between the rival popes. St. Bernard of Clairvaux, (born 1090, probably Fontaine-les-Dijon, near Dijon, Burgundy [France]—died August 20, 1153, Clairvaux, Champagne; canonized January 18, 1174; feast day August 20), Cistercian monk and mystic, founder and abbot of the abbey of Clairvaux and one of the most influential churchmen of his time. [24] Calvin also quotes him in setting forth his doctrine of a forensic alien righteousness, or as it is commonly called imputed righteousness. His two successors, Pope Celestine II and Pope Lucius II, reigned only a short time, and then Bernard saw one of his disciples, Bernard of Pisa, and known thereafter as Eugene III, raised to the Chair of Saint Peter. Local system number: There are many who believe that it was his championship of the Templars that made their survival possible. Innocent II, having been banished from Rome by Anacletus, took refuge in France. Amour sacré, fin’amor: Bernard de Clairvaux et les troubadours.Philosophes médiévaux 60. [c] Bernard led to the foundation of 163 monasteries in different parts of Europe. Aliases: Św. After persuading Gerard, Bernard traveled to visit William X, Duke of Aquitaine. The whole conflict ended when Anacletus died on 25 January 1138. A Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation, Liber ad milites templi de laude novae militiae, representing the combined will of earth and heaven, https://books.google.com/books?id=kkoJAQAAIAAJ, List of Latin nicknames of the Middle Ages: Doctors in theology, Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, patron saint archive, "Monuments historiques : Couvent et Basilique Saint-Bernard", "Sermon XIII: The Believers Concern, to pray for Faith", Audio on the life of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Database with all known medieval representations of Bernard, "Here Followeth the Life of St. Bernard, the Mellifluous Doctor", "Two Accounts of the Early Career of St. Bernard", Saint Bernard of Clairvaux Abbot, Doctor of the Church-1153, Lewis E 26 De consideratione (On Consideration) at OPenn, MS 484/11 Super cantica canticorum at OPenn, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bernard_of_Clairvaux&oldid=996407825, Pre-Reformation saints of the Lutheran liturgical calendar, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 12:18. He was sent to found a new abbey at an isolated clearing in a glen known as the Val d'Absinthe, about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) southeast of Bar-sur-Aube. Bernard found it expedient to dwell upon taking the cross as a potent means of gaining absolution for sin and attaining grace. In 1120, Bernard wrote his first work, De Gradibus Superbiae et Humilitatis, and his homilies which he entitled De Laudibus Mariae. Bernard had observed that when lectio divina was neglected monasticism suffered. Bernard's entry at Catholic Encyclopedia This page … He is a Roman Catholic saint. His influence led Alexander III to launch reforms that led to the establishment of canon law. author of “henry viii. By Sr. JosephMary f.t.i. Abelard continued to press for a public debate, and made his challenge widely known, making it hard for Bernard to decline. Forbid those noisy troublesome frogs to come out of their holes, to leave their marshes ... Then your friend will no longer be exposed to the accusations of pride and presumption.[4]. Stones and trees will teach you that which you cannot learn from the masters. Drawn as much by the fame of the monk as by the mandates of the king and the Pope, a vast assembly of prelates and nobles gathered at Vézelay in Burgundy. Under pressure from his ecclesiastical superiors and his friends, notably the bishop and scholar William of Champeaux, he retired to a hut near the monastery and to the discipline of a quack physician. This was the occasion of the longest and most emotional of Bernard's letters. It was here, also, that he produced a small but complete treatise on Mariology (study of doctrines and dogmas concerning the Virgin Mary), “Praises of the Virgin Mother.” Bernard was to become a major champion of a moderate cult of the Virgin, though he did not support the notion of Mary’s Immaculate Conception. [b] In 1137, he was again forced to leave his solitude by order of the pope to put an end to the quarrel between Lothair and Roger of Sicily. Bernard of Clairvaux (Latin: Bernardus Claraevallensis; 1090 – 20 August 1153), venerated as Saint Bernard, was a Burgundian abbot, and a major leader in the revitalization of Benedictine monasticism through the nascent Order of Cistercians.. He then found Radulphe in Mainz and was able to silence him, returning him to his monastery.[21]. [12] The council found in favour of Bernard and their judgment was confirmed by the pope. Other websites. Bernard's influence was soon felt in provincial affairs. He takes his name from a monastery he founded … At the age of 22, while Bernard was at prayer in a church, he felt the calling of God to enter the monastery of Cîteaux. Overview of France's Clairvaux Abbey, with a discussion of the Cistercian order. Translated by P ierre-Y ves É mery. It was here that his first writings evolved. Bernard went again to Italy, where Roger II of Sicily was endeavouring to withdraw the Pisans from their allegiance to Innocent. In opposition to the rational approach to divine understanding that the scholastics adopted, Bernard preached an immediate faith, in which the intercessor was the Virgin Mary. Another time, while he slept in an inn, a prostitute was introduced naked beside him, and he saved his chastity by running. Bernard did not reject human philosophy which is genuine philosophy, which leads to God; he differentiates between different kinds of knowledge, the highest being theological. Find books Bernard of Clairvaux was one of the most interesting and influential people of his time. Primitive Rule of the Templars, Paperback by Clairvaux, Bernard De; Payens, Hugues De, ISBN 1503149218, ISBN-13 9781503149212, Brand New, Free shipping This is the original, primitive rule of the Templars.