Andes Mountains, South American mountain system that contains the highest peaks in the Western Hemisphere. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The Andes are the result of tectonic plate processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American Plate. Brüggen, J. Haut plateau des Andes Haut plateau des Andes en 4 lettres. Mirador de los Andes (Andes Lookout) was without trees, the air was thin and it was very quiet. Recherche - Définition. In the rainy season (summer), part of the rangeland is used for cropping (mainly potatoes, barley, broad beans and wheat). On the east side of this section of the Mendozina Andes, they flowed down to 2,060 m (6,759 ft) and on the west side to about 1,220 m (4,003 ft) above sea level. Potosí in present-day Bolivia and Cerro de Pasco in Peru was one of the principal mines of the Spanish Empire in the New World. They separate a narrow western coastal area from the rest of the continent, affecting deeply the conditions of life within the ranges themselves and in surrounding areas. [6][7] The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau and according to Isacks (1988) the Orocline is related to crustal shortening. Agent: MARCHANDS DES AMERIQUES INC. It is at between 4,500 and 4,800 m (14,764 and 15,748 ft) in the tropical Ecuadorian, Colombian, Venezuelan, and northern Peruvian Andes, rising to 4,800–5,200 m (15,748–17,060 ft) in the drier mountains of southern Peru south to northern Chile south to about 30°S before descending to 4,500 m (14,760 ft) on Aconcagua at 32°S, 2,000 m (6,600 ft) at 40°S, 500 m (1,640 ft) at 50°S, and only 300 m (980 ft) in Tierra del Fuego at 55°S; from 50°S, several of the larger glaciers descend to sea level.[15]. c'est ce que nous voyons aujourd'hui depuis le mont Whistler - un vestige du plateau original qui a précédé les montagnes. In addition it makes cropping in the dry season (winter) possible and allows the cultivation of frost resistant vegetable crops like onion and carrot.[37]. 1; Allmendinger et al., 1997; Isacks, 1988; Strecker et al., 2007). Coca, despite eradication programmes in some countries, remains an important crop for legal local use in a mildly stimulating herbal tea, and, both controversially and illegally, for the production of cocaine. The Andes Mountains host large ore and salt deposits and some of their eastern fold and thrust belt acts as traps for commercially exploitable amounts of hydrocarbons. Locally, the relatives of the camel, the llama, and the alpaca continue to carry out important uses as pack animals, but this use has generally diminished in modern times. ): Alluvial fans: A field approach. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chester-New York-Brisbane-Toronto-Singapore: 55–68. Haut plateau des Andes en 4 lettres. Explore the most popular trails in Réserve naturelle du plateau des Landes with hand-curated trail maps and driving directions as well as detailed reviews and photos from hikers, campers and nature lovers … Although Andean Amerindian peoples crafted ceremonial jewelry of gold and other metals, the mineralizations of the Andes were first mined on a large scale after the Spanish arrival. [30], Birds of humid Andean forests include mountain-toucans, quetzals and the Andean cock-of-the-rock, while mixed species flocks dominated by tanagers and furnariids commonly are seen – in contrast to several vocal but typically cryptic species of wrens, tapaculos and antpittas. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/place/Andes-Mountains, LiveScience - Andes: World's Longest Mountain Range, Maps of World - Andes Mountain, South America, Andes - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Andes - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Researcher’s Note: Height of Mount Aconcagua. ), 735–738. Development in Quaternary Science, Vol. The volcanoes of the belt are diverse in terms of activity style, products and morphology. About 250 million years ago the crustal plates constituting the Earth’s landmass were joined together into the supercontinent Pangaea. Horizontal crustal shortening is regarded as the U. Riller et al. They began as sediments eroded from the Amazonia craton (or Brazilian shield)—the ancient granitic continental fragment that constitutes much of Brazil—and deposited between about 450 and 250 million years ago on the craton’s western flank. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? The Chilean Army and Chilean Navy defeated the combined forces of Bolivia and Peru, and Chile took over Bolivia's only province on the Pacific Coast, some land from Peru that was returned to Peru decades later. Located on a high-altitude plateau at the edge of the Andes Mountains, the province is responsible for roughly 70 percent of the country's annual wine production. Kuhle, M. (1986): Die Vergletscherung Tibets und die Entstehung von Eiszeiten. The climate is known to change drastically in rather short distances. The Andes Mountains form a north–south axis of cultural influences. The majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means "east"[1] as in Antisuyu (Quechua for "east region"),[1] one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. Critic Reviews (3) John Szabo, MS. For the purposes of this discussion, the system is divided into three broad categories. Kuhle, M. (1984): Spuren hocheiszeitlicher Gletscherbedeckung in der Aconcagua-Gruppe (32–33° S). In the south, the Andes share a long boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. This dry steppe climate is considered to be typical of the subtropical position at 32–34° S. The valley bottoms have no woods, just dwarf scrub. Andes Plateau, 700, Chile, 2012. Kuhle, M. (1990): Ice Marginal Ramps and Alluvial Fans in Semi-Arid Mountains: Convergence and Difference. Lettres connues et inconnues Entrez les lettres connues dans l'ordre et remplacez les lettres inconnues par un espace, un point, une virgule ou une étoile. 1a).The plateau has an average surface elevation of approximately 4000 m above sea level and formed in a non-collisional plate tectonic setting as a consequence of lithospheric shortening due to convergence of the oceanic Nazca Plate and the … By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. [32] Other animals found in the relatively open habitats of the high Andes include the huemul, cougar, foxes in the genus Pseudalopex,[30][31] and, for birds, certain species of tinamous (notably members of the genus Nothoprocta), Andean goose, giant coot, flamingos (mainly associated with hypersaline lakes), lesser rhea, Andean flicker, diademed sandpiper-plover, miners, sierra-finches and diuca-finches. Currently, mining in the Andes of Chile and Peru places these countries as the first and third major producers of copper in the world. Temperature, atmospheric pressure and humidity decrease in higher elevations. The ancient peoples of the Andes such as the Incas have practiced irrigation techniques for over 6,000 years. About 30,000 species of vascular plants live in the Andes, with roughly half being endemic to the region, surpassing the diversity of any other hotspot. The snow line depends on the location. In unirrigated land, pasture is the most common type of land use. 2c. The Andes, Andes Mountains or Andean Mountains (Spanish: Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. In: Ehlers, J., Gibbard, P.L. The potato holds a very important role as an internally consumed staple crop. The world's highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m (22,615 ft). The Andes contain the highest peaks in the Western Hemisphere. The etymology of the word Andes has been debated. It perhaps is more reasonable to ascribe it to the anta of the older Aymara language, which connotes copper colour generally. [5] The specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the "Arica Elbow". The parallel Sierra of Andes delimit one of the world highest plateaux: the Altiplano, (Spanish for "high plain"), Andean Plateau or Bolivian Plateau. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Best trails in Réserve naturelle du plateau des Landes. [30][31] The Andean condor, the largest bird of its kind in the Western Hemisphere, occurs throughout much of the Andes but generally in very low densities. However, there is one railroad that connects Chile with Peru via the Andes, and there are others that make the same connection via southern Bolivia. The Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S.[5][6] At this point, the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile and Argentina. Placez un Purian mûr sur le Plateau d’offrande de la Statue de régisseur. This subduction-uplift process was accompanied by the intrusion of considerable quantities of magma from the mantle, first in the form of a volcanic arc along the western edge of the South American Plate and later by the injection of hot solutions into surrounding continental rocks; the latter process created numerous dikes and veins containing concentrations of economically valuable minerals that later were to play a critical role in the human occupation of the Andes. Other important crops that originated from the Andes are tobacco and potatoes. Kuhle, M. (1990): The Probability of Proof in Geomorphology—an Example of the Application of Information Theory to a New Kind of Glacigenic Morphological Type, the Ice-marginal Ramp (Bortensander). The cities of Caracas, Valencia, and Maracay are in the Venezuelan Coastal Range, which is a debatable extension of the Andes at the northern extremity of South America. In modern times, the largest cities in the Andes are Bogotá, with a population of about eight million, and Santiago, Medellín, and Cali. [28], The vicuña and guanaco can be found living in the Altiplano, while the closely related domesticated llama and alpaca are widely kept by locals as pack animals and for their meat and wool. Omissions? below the Altiplano. The Sierras de Córdoba, where the effects of the ancient Pampean orogeny can be observed, owe their modern uplift and relief to the Andean orogeny in the Tertiary. The Andes Mountains also contain large quantities of iron ore located in many mountains within the range. One of the Earth’s great natural features, the Andes form an unbroken rampart over some 5,500 miles—from the southern tip of South America to the continent’s northernmost coast on … The Central and Northern Andes and the Amazon River basin and drainage network. Part III: South America, Asia, Africa, Australia, Antarctica. sales tax. Development of an incipient Paleogene topography between the present-day Andean plateau (Puna) and the Eastern Cordillera, southern Central Andes, NW Argentina Article Sep 2020 See railroad maps of that region. The tectonic processes that created the Andes have continued to the present day. [34] The government sponsored the construction of aqueducts and roads in addition to preexisting installations. Some of these were built during a period of war between Bolivia and Paraguay, in order to transport Bolivian troops and their supplies to the war front in the lowlands of southeastern Bolivia and western Paraguay. In: Chinese Translation Bulletin of Glaciology and Geocryology 5 (4): 1–17 (in Chinese language). Sujet et définition de mots fléchés et mots croisés ⇒ HAUT PLATEAU DES ANDES sur motscroisés.fr toutes les solutions pour l'énigme HAUT PLATEAU DES ANDES avec 4 … Devastated by European diseases to which they had no immunity and civil wars, the Incas were defeated in 1532 by an alliance composed of tens of thousands of allies from nations they had subjugated (e.g. Rundsch. la surface plane du plateau original finit par disparaître et seules les montagnes subsistent. A long series of cultural development culminated in the expansion of the Inca civilization and Inca Empire in the central Andes during the 15th century. ), Quaternary Glaciation— Extent and Chronology. The porphyry mineralization further benefited from the dry climate that let them largely out of the disturbing actions of meteoric water. The Andes' dendritic glacier arms, i.e. 15 (Quaternary Glaciation – Extent and Chronology, A Closer Look, Eds: Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P.L. [6] The Andean segment north and south of the Orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively. Nombre de lettres. These ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate: the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, and the Wet Andes. The southern section is rainy and cool, the central section is dry. From a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, although the Peru-Chile trench can be considered their ultimate western limit. The range is 7,000 km (4,350 mi) long, 200 to 700 km (124 to 435 mi) wide (widest between 18°S - 20°S latitude), and has an average height of about 4,000 m (13,123 ft). The Andes Mountains are the highest mountain range outside Asia. The Andes are also part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges (cordillera) that consists of an almost continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica.