While much of the impetus came from the middle classes, much of the cannon fodder came from the lower classes. King Christian VIII, a moderate reformer but still an absolutist, died in January 1848 during a period of rising opposition from farmers and liberals. In Serbia, feudalism was abolished and the power of the Serbian prince was reduced with the Turkish Constitution of Serbia in 1838. Significant lasting reforms included the abolition of serfdom in Austria and Hungary, the end of absolute monarchy in Denmark, and the introduction of representative democracy in the Netherlands. Led by a group of young intellectuals and officers in the Wallachian military forces, the movement succeeded in toppling the ruling Prince Gheorghe Bibescu, whom it replaced with a provisional government and a regency, and in passing a series of major liberal reforms, first announced in the Proclamation of Islaz. distingue la « révolution sociale » française de 1848, menée par « les ouvriers . , Series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848, Autumn 1848: Reactionaries organize for a counter-revolution, 1849–1851: Overthrow of revolutionary regimes. Cet épisode est appelé "la promenade des cadavres".  The nationalist picture was further complicated by the simultaneous events in the German states, which moved toward greater German national unity. La répression, violente, fait des milliers de morts chez les insurgés (peut-être 5 000) et près de 900 dans l'armée. Although Hungary took a national united stand for its freedom, some minorities of the Kingdom of Hungary, including the Serbs of Vojvodina, the Romanians of Transylvania and some Slovaks of Upper Hungary supported the Habsburg Emperor and fought against the Hungarian Revolutionary Army. Stream ad-free or purchase CD's and MP3s now on Amazon.com. De surcroît, en 1846, la situation économique se dégrade en Europe comme en France. https://fr.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Révolution_française_de_1848 Cependant, le refus de la Garde nationale de disperser les émeutiers est un signe assez fort. Finalement, le trône accueille un nouveau roi dans un nouveau régime.  However the coalitions did not hold together for long.  The second group crossed the border on 29 March and headed for Brussels. The effects of the blight were most severely manifested in the Great Irish Famine, but also caused famine-like conditions in the Scottish Highlands and throughout continental Europe.  The economic Panic of 1847 increased urban unemployment: 10,000 Viennese factory workers were made redundant and 128 Hamburg firms went bankrupt over the course of 1847. "The Democratic Left in Germany, 1848,", Ginsborg, Paul. Voir plus d'idées sur le thème révolution française, révolution, ancien régime. A la tête du parti conservateur et du gouvernement depuis 1840, le président du Conseil, François Guizot proclame "Enrichissez-vous", pariant sur l'augmentation général du niveau de vie. , A tendency common in the revolutionary movements of 1848 was a perception that the liberal monarchies set up in the 1830s, despite formally being representative parliamentary democracies, were too oligarchical and/or corrupt to respond to the urgent needs of the people, and were therefore in need of drastic democratic overhaul or, failing that, separatism to build a democratic state from scratch. D. C. Heath & co Collection Its main goal was the administrative division of Galicia into Western (Polish) and Eastern (Ruthenian/Ukrainian) parts within the borders of the Habsburg Empire, and formation of a separate region with a political self-governance.. Around 6,000 armed émigrés of the "Belgian Legion" attempted to cross the Belgian frontier. Watch Queue Queue Louis-Philippe d'Orléans acquiert ainsi la couronne d'une monarchie parlementaire régie par suffrage censitaire. Après des élections favorables aux modérés et aux monarchistes le 25 avril, Auguste Blanqui tente un coup de force le 15 mai 1848. Agitators who had been exiled by the old governments rushed home to seize the moment. In Prussia, August von Bethmann-Hollweg's Preußisches Wochenblatt newspaper (founded 1851) acted as a popular outlet for modernising Prussian conservative statesmen and journalists against the reactionary Kreuzzeitung faction. Suite à l'interdiction du banquet ( jdirais la définition juste après ) du 22 février 1848, le peuple de Paris se soulève, et prend le contrôle de … Parts of Prussia were beginning to industrialize.  Reforms ameliorated the most unpopular features of rural feudalism, but industrial workers remained dissatisfied with these reforms and pressed for greater change. Thiers ushered in a third French Republic, Bismarck united Germany, and Cavour, Italy. The resulting turmoil in Colombia lasted three decades; from 1851 to 1885, the country was ravaged by four general civil wars and 50 local revolutions. Celui-ci n'a que neuf ans et c'est la duchesse d'Orléans qui doit assumer la régence. Previously a separate kingdom, Ireland was incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801. En réalité, c'est Adolphe Thiers qui gère dorénavant la situation. Their participation in the revolutions, however, differed. Nevertheless, there were a few immediate successes for some revolutionary movements, notably in the Habsburg lands. Quelles sont les conséquences de la révolution de février 1848 ? En ces temps d’épidémie, de choléra, de disette, de crise financière et de rivalités politiques, la monarchie de Juillet est dans une mauvaise passe. Le 13 mars 1848, de nombreux ouvriers et paysans manifestent dans la ville de Vienne et provoquent une grande révolte. Deak, Istvan. During those months, the constitution was quite advanced for its time in liberal democratic terms, as was the proposal of an Italian confederation of states. In order to exclude absolute monarchists from government, power had alternated between two liberal parties: the center-left Progressive Party, and the center-right Moderate Party. La population ressent les réformes (interdiction des réunions . But the end results were not as comprehensive as many had hoped. La campagne des banquets contre la crise économique et sociale, La révolte se déroule principalement à Paris. Sans effusion de sang, la France répète les Trois Glorieuses et se débarrasse d'un régime qui a souffert d'une absence profonde de légitimité. Officials also set up workshops for women when they felt they were excluded. This revolution was driven by nationalist and republican ideals among the French general public, who believed the people should rule themselves. The Diet then passed the April laws that established equality before the law, a legislature, a hereditary constitutional monarchy, and an end to the transfer and restrictions of land use.. 475-477 Mais, le soir du 23 février, une manifestation dégénère devant le ministère des Affaires étrangères, sur le boulevard des Capucines. But a decade of rule by the center-right Moderates had recently produced a constitutional reform (1845), prompting fears that the Moderates sought to reach out to Absolutists and permanently exclude the Progressives. Taken together, the two revolutions can be thought of as echoing aspects of the French Second Republic: the Spanish Revolution of 1852, as a revolt by Radicals and Liberals against the oligarchical, conservative-liberal parliamentary monarchy of the 1830s, mirrored the French Revolution of 1848; while the Spanish Revolution of 1854, as a counter-revolution of conservative-liberals under a military strongman, had echoes of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte's coup against the French Second Republic. Switzerland, already an alliance of republics, also saw an internal struggle. The Poles tried to establish a Polish political entity, but refused to cooperate with the Germans and the Jews. For nationalists, 1848 was the springtime of hope, when newly emerging nationalities rejected the old multinational empires.  In France, the works of Ledru-Rollin, Hugo, Baudelaire and Proudhon were confiscated. Despite its rapid gains and popular backing, the new administration was marked by conflicts between the radical wing and more conservative forces, especially over the issue of land reform. , Aristocratic wealth (and corresponding power) was synonymous with the ownership of farm lands and effective control over the peasants. La politique menée par Louis-Philippe Ier qui s'entoure de ministres banquiers est avant tout axée sur le développement économique. Pourtant, la misère s'accroît, et avec elle le mécontentement. Every country had a distinctive timing, but the general pattern showed very sharp cycles as reform moved up then down. Les armureries sont dévalisées et, au petit matin, Paris est couverte de barricades. The national-liberal movement wanted to abolish absolutism, but retain a strongly centralized state. The most serious threat of revolutionary contagion, however, was posed by Belgian émigré groups from France. Quelles sont les causes de la révolution de février 1848 ? The repeal in 1846 of the protectionist agricultural tariffs – called the "Corn Laws" – had defused some proletarian fervour. La révolution de 1848 en France est le renversement de la Monarchie de Juillet par un soulèvement populaire dont la bourgeoisie républicaine prend la tête. "1848 in the Habsburg Monarchy,", O'Boyle Lenore. The same might be said of Switzerland, where a new constitutional regime was introduced in 1848: the Swiss Federal Constitution was a revolution of sorts, laying the foundation of Swiss society as it is today. It expressed wishes that in those regions of Galicia where the Ruthenian (Ukrainian) population represented majority, the Ukrainian language should be taught at schools and used to announce official decrees for the peasantry; local officials were expected to understand it and the Ruthenian clergy was to be equalized in their rights with the clergy of all other denominations. The 1848 Revolution in the History of France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe.In France, the revolutionary events ended the July Monarchy (1830–1848) and led to the creation of the French Second Republic.. Several smaller groups managed to infiltrate Belgium, but the reinforced Belgian border troops succeeded and the defeat at Risquons-Tout effectively ended the revolutionary threat to Belgium. According to Vasile Maciu, the failures were attributable in Wallachia to foreign intervention, in Moldavia to the opposition of the feudalists, and in Transylvania to the failure of the campaigns of General Józef Bem, and later to Austrian repression. Le 5 juin 1832, les obsèques du général Lamarque provoquent une insurrection républicaine et la mort de 800 personnes. Penguin Group (Canada). Confirm this request.  Additionally, an uprising by democratic forces against Prussia, planned but not actually carried out, occurred in Greater Poland. Formé d'une alliance entre les républicains libéraux et les démocrates socialistes, le gouvernement engage de nombreuses réformes tandis que la population fête l'événement. Sous l’impulsion des libéraux et républicains et suite à une fusillade malheureuse, Paris se soulève à nouveau et parvient à prendre le contrôle de … The "February Revolution" in France was sparked by the suppression of the campagne des banquets. But its first major engagement against police, in the village of Ballingarry, South Tipperary, was a failure.  Nicholas I's rule in Russia after 1848 was particularly repressive, marked by an expansion of the secret police (the Tretiye Otdeleniye) and stricter censorship; there were more Russians working for censorship organs than actual books published in the period immediately after 1848. 99, 113; Ginsborg, p. 44; Tocqueville, Alexis de. There were 400 French food riots during 1846 to 1847, while German socio-economic protests increased from 28 during 1830 to 1839, to 103 during 1840 to 1847. Again the events of 1848 opened the debate between liberals and conservatives and new stakes were envolved.Fragment d'une contribution importante sur « La Révolution Française dans la conscience politique du XIXe siècle » dont est reproduite la partie concernant les réactions suédoises à la Révolution Française, et notamment la « Bataille des jacobins » opposant les tenants des idées des Lumières, … Democrats looked to 1848 as a democratic revolution, which in the long run ensured liberty, equality, and fraternity. The revolutions inspired lasting reform in Denmark, as well as the Netherlands. The European Revolutions of 1848 and particularly the French Second Republic prompted the Spanish radical movement to adopt positions incompatible with the existing constitutional regime, notably republicanism.  Central to long-term peasant grievances were the loss of communal lands, forest restrictions (such as the French Forest Code of 1827), and remaining feudal structures, notably the robot (labor obligations) that existed among the serfs and oppressed peasantry of the Habsburg lands. La démocratie française s’est construite dans la douleur, depuis la Révolution de 1848, et même depuis celle de 1789. Read More on This Topic history of Europe: The Revolutions of 1848 , Following rebellions in 1837 and 1838, 1848 in Canada saw the establishment of responsible government in Nova Scotia and The Canadas, the first such governments in the British Empire outside Great Britain. La chronologie Les informations recueillies sont destinées à CCM Benchmark Group pour vous assurer l'envoi de votre newsletter. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979. "The Emergence of the Extreme Left in Lower Languedoc, 1848–1851: Social and Economic Factors in Politics,", Hamerow, Theodore S. "History and the German Revolution of 1848. On relève une vingtaine de … Both liberal reformers and radical politicians were reshaping national governments. Although Hungary would remain part of the monarchy through personal union with the emperor, a constitutional government would be founded. The Island of Great Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal, the Russian Empire (including Poland and Finland), and the Ottoman Empire did not encounter major national or Radical revolutions over this period. The revolutions of 1848 were followed by new centrist coalitions dominated by liberals nervous of the threat of working-class socialism, as seen in the Piedmontese Connubio under Cavour. A popular press extended political awareness, and new values and ideas such as popular liberalism, nationalism and socialism began to emerge. Résumé de la révolte "'The Old Forms are Breaking Up, ... Our New Germany is Rebuilding Itself': Constitutionalism, Nationalism and the Creation of a German Polity during the Revolutions of 1848–49,", Macartney, C. A. Although its population was made up largely of Catholics, and sociologically of agricultural workers, tensions arose from the political over-representation, in positions of power, of landowners of Protestant background who were loyal to the United Kingdom. Under the puppet Habsburg government of Maximilian I of Mexico, the country became a client state of France (1863-1867). QCM La Révolution française (1789-1815) : Des questions sur la Révolution française de 1789 ! Peasant discontent in the 1840s grew in intensity: peasant occupations of lost communal land increased in many areas: those convicted of wood theft in the Rhenish Palatinate increased from 100,000 in 1829–30 to 185,000 in 1846–47. The German states sent in an army, but Danish victories in 1849 led to the Treaty of Berlin (1850) and the London Protocol (1852). The revolutions were essentially democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation-states. The Italian and German states seemed to be rapidly forming unified nations. The Hanoverian nobility successfully appealed to the Confederal Diet in 1851 over the loss of their noble privileges, while the Prussian Junkers recovered their manorial police powers from 1852 to 1855. In 1830 the Belgian Revolution had broken out inspired by the revolution occurring in France, and Belgian authorities feared that a similar 'copycat' phenomenon might occur in 1848. "The Diffusion of Revolution: '1848' in Europe and Latin America", Fasel, George. The uprisings were led by temporary coalitions of reformers, the middle classes ("the bourgeoisie") and workers. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no significant coordination or cooperation among their respective revolutionaries. L'opposition décide de l'organisation d'un grand banquet le 19 février à Paris. Add tags for "La Révolution française de 1848 vue par les Hongrois.". These concepts together - democracy, liberalism, nationalism and socialism, in the sense described above - came to be encapsulated in the political term radicalism. Some of the major contributing factors were widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership, demands for more participation in government and democracy, demands for freedom of the press, other demands made by the working class, the upsurge of nationalism, the regrouping of established government forces, and the European Potato Failure, which triggered mass starvation, migration, and civil unrest.. Elle se déroule à Paris du 22 au 25 février 1848. R.J.W. Un coup de feu entraîne une riposte des soldats. Reactionaries returned to power and many leaders of the revolution went into exile. The Hungarian Initiatives Foundation. La Restauration : le retour de la monarchie en France de 1814 à 1830, Affaire Dreyfus : résumé, explications et dates clés, Révolution industrielle : contexte, conséquences, résumé et dates clés, La commune de Paris : résumé de l'épisode insurrectionnel de 1871, Guerre de Sécession : causes et conséquences d'un conflit meurtrier, Victor Hugo : un discours historique à l'Assemblée le 30 juin 1850. Après avoir rejoint les ouvriers, ils continuent à défiler, ce qui provoque quelques incidents et l'occupation militaire de Paris. Declarations with demands of political reform were spread in the city and a crowd was dispersed by the military, leading to 18 casualties. A fine work by this French historian and politician who also collaborated in the writing of the ‘Revue des deux mondes’, as well as many other publications. The Bill was essentially a declaration of martial law in Ireland, designed to create a counter-insurgency against the growing Irish nationalist movement.. Le préfet l'interdit le 14 février. Le 22 février 1848, contre toute attente, la France renoue avec la révolution. As a member of the provisional government established after the 1848 Revolution, he campaigned for workers' rights, advocating the creation of cooperative workshops. Au soir du 23 février, la rue fête sa victoire et le pouvoir semble avoir sauvé la situation à moindre frais. Révolution française de 1848 Publié le 19 Novembre 2012, 13:17pm Le régime de la Monarchie de Juillet est usé, la crise politique et économique aggravée, le « terreau » social et urbain de la capitale est favorable à l’expression d’un mécontentement resté latent. In a number of major German and Italian states, and in Austria, the old leaders were forced to grant liberal constitutions. , In France bloody street battles exploded between the middle class reformers and the working class radicals. Il s'agit de la première élection présidentielle dans l'histoire de France. [clarification needed]. In Ireland a current of nationalist, egalitarian and Radical republicanism, inspired by the French Revolution, had been present since the 1790s – being expressed initially in the Irish Rebellion of 1798. den danske revolution 1830–1866: p. 70, line 47–48. While no revolution occurred in Spain in the year 1848, a similar phenomenon occurred. D'ailleurs, dès 1852, la IIème République laissera place au Second Empire.  The revolt's failure was reversed 12 years later as the Bourbon Kingdom of the Two Sicilies collapsed in 1860–61 with the Risorgimento. Le gouvernement dirigé par Metternich prend la fuite. A long gunfight with around 50 armed Royal Irish Constables ended when police reinforcements arrived. , 'Nationalism' believed in uniting people bound by (some mix of) common languages, culture, religion, shared history, and of course immediate geography; there were also irredentist movements. L'Illusion lyrique est passée : le peuple a choisi le retour à un ordre bourgeois qui diffère peu de la monarchie. This video is unavailable. Steven Brust and Emma Bull's 1997 epistolary novel Freedom & Necessity is set in England in the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1848. From the 1810s a conservative-liberal movement led by Daniel O'Connell had sought to secure equal political rights for Catholics within the British political system, successful in the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829. , Governments after 1848 were forced into managing the public sphere and popular sphere with more effectiveness, resulting in the increased prominence of the Prussian Zentralstelle für Pressangelegenheiten (Central Press Agency, established 1850), the Austrian Zensur-und polizeihofstelle, and the French Direction Générale de la Librairie (1856).. Dès sa naissance, la monarchie de Juillet est victime de troubles politiques à caractère insurrectionnel. Sommaire Abstract. Shortly after the revolution in France, Belgian migrant workers living in Paris were encouraged to return to Belgium to overthrow the monarchy and establish a republic. This was notably the case for the Netherlands, where King William II decided to alter the Dutch constitution to reform elections and voluntarily reduce the power of the monarchy.  The Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Manteuffel declared that the state could no longer be run 'like the landed estate of a nobleman'.  A new constitution of 1848 ended the almost-complete independence of the cantons, transforming Switzerland into a federal state. The situation in the German states was similar. L’un de ses chefs, Lamartine (1) rejette le drapeau rouge, symbole de la terreur de 1793, mais aussi du socialisme naissant. While no major political upheavals occurred in the Ottoman Empire as such, political unrest did occur in some of its vassal states. Ainsi, la révolte des canuts à Lyon est matée dans le sang dès novembre 1831. Its goals were administrative autonomy, abolition of serfdom, and popular self-determination. , Denmark had been governed by a system of absolute monarchy since the 17th century. Sous l'impulsion des libéraux et des républicains , le peuple de Paris, à la suite d'une fusillade, se soulève à nouveau et parvient à prendre le contrôle de … This ultimately led the Radicals to exit the Progressive Party to form the Democratic Party in 1849. In other countries, the relative calm could be attributed to the fact that they had already gone through revolutions or civil wars in the preceding years, and therefore already enjoyed many of the reforms which Radicals elsewhere were demanding in 1848. Pouthas, Charles. ", Stefan Huygebaert, "Unshakeable Foundations,". , Caught off guard at first, the aristocracy and their allies plot a return to power. L'élection présidentielle de 1848, organisée pour désigner le président de la Deuxième République française, s'est tenue les 10 et 11 décembre 1848 et s'est conclue par la victoire écrasante de Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, élu au premier tour au suffrage universel masculin pour un mandat de quatre ans.  With the exception of the Netherlands, there was a strong correlation among the countries that were most deeply affected by the industrial shock of 1847 and those that underwent a revolution in 1848.. Toutefois, on refuse d'adopter le drapeau rouge associé à la Terreur. In 1852, the conservatives of the Moderate Party were ousted after a decade in power by an alliance of Radicals, Liberals and liberal Conservatives led by Generals Espartero and O'Donnell. Le lendemain, les troubles redoublent d'intensité, les manifestants réclament la démission de Guizot et la réforme du code électoral. Pour contourner cette interdiction, les républicains organisent des banquets à partir du 9 juillet 1947. Many unskilled laborers toiled from 12 to 15 hours per day when they had work, living in squalid, disease-ridden slums. "Recollections," 1893, Weibull, Jörgen. Illusion, car rapidement le climat se dégrade et voit s'opposer républicains et extrême gauche tandis que les conservateurs reviennent aux avant-postes.  More widely, many disillusioned and persecuted revolutionaries, in particular (though not exclusively) those from Germany and the Austrian Empire, left their homelands for foreign exile in the New World or in the more liberal European nations: these emigrants were known as the Forty-Eighters. In some countries, uprisings had already occurred demanding similar reforms to the Revolutions of 1848, but little success. Fin de la monarchie La monarchie de Juillet laissera la place à la Deuxième République. Despite forceful and often violent efforts of established and reactionary powers to keep them down, disruptive ideas gained popularity: democracy, liberalism, radicalism, nationalism, and socialism. Un gouvernement provisoire est formé avec les républicains modérés du journal le National : Lamartine et Ledru-Rollin détiennent respectivement les deux ministères clés des Affaires étrangères et de l'Intérieur … Revolutionaries such as Karl Marx built up a following. Derived from this catastrophe and chronic stability problems, the Liberal Party started a reformist movement. ", The "March Revolution" in the German states took place in the south and the west of Germany, with large popular assemblies and mass demonstrations. In France the monarchy was overthrown and replaced by a republic. Vidéo sur la modernité de la DDHC. They all ended in failure and repression and were followed by widespread disillusionment among liberals. The demands of the Diet were agreed upon on 18 March by Emperor Ferdinand. The new regime would then proclaim the 1857 Mexican Constitution, which implemented a variety of liberal reforms.  Tory and Orange Order in Canada opposition to responsible government came to a head in riots triggered by the Rebellion Losses Bill in 1849. Publication date 1900 Topics Louis XVI, King of France, 1754-1793 Publisher Boston, New York [etc.] Au mécontentement politique s'ajoute le mécontentement économique. La révolution de février 1848 qui instaure la république démocratique et sociale a fait du « droit au travail » l’un de ses principaux mots d’ordre. 683–84, W.B. Autriche, Hongrie, Italie et Allemagne connaissent également des troubles. Vous bénéficiez d'un droit d'accès et de rectification de vos données personnelles, ainsi que celui d'en demander l'effacement dans les limites prévues par la loi.  These reduced harvests were accompanied by a steep rise in prices (the cost of wheat more than doubled in France and Habsburg Italy). A Romanian liberal and Romantic nationalist uprising began in June in the principality of Wallachia. La Révolution Française de 1848 La Révolution française de 1848 est la seconde révolution française du XIXe siècle ; elle se déroule à Paris les 23, 24 et 25 février 1848.  These events resulted in Klemens von Metternich, the Austrian prince and foreign minister, resigning. L’Empire, la Restauration, le Second Empire, la Commune et les deux Guerres mondiales furent autant d’épreuves que la France dut savoir surpasser pour accoucher difficilement de … You may have already requested this item. Lincoln, "Russia and the European Revolutions of 1848", Krzysztof Makowski, "Poles, Germans and Jews in the Grand Duchy of Poznan in 1848: From coexistence to conflict. Historian Priscilla Smith Robertson argues that many goals were achieved by the 1870s, but the credit primarily goes to the enemies of the 1848 revolutionaries: Most of what the men of 1848 fought for was brought about within a quarter of a century, and the men who accomplished it were most of them specific enemies of the 1848 movement.  In later decades, the rebels returned and gained their goals. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in the European history.. Since 1833, Spain had been governed by a conservative-liberal parliamentary monarchy similar to and modelled on the July Monarchy in France. La révolution de février 1848 à Paris En février 1848, des ouvriers et des bourgeois libéraux s’unissent face au roi Louis-Philippe. Le 22 février 1848, contre toute attente, la France renoue avec la révolution. En quelques jours, le roi Louis-Philippe abdique et la IIe République est proclamée. German reformers argued endlessly without finalizing their results. Maurice Vinck, La Révolution de 1848 dans les Deux-Sèvres, 1971. Février 1848, Révolution française de Journées de février 1848 en France Révolution de 1848 en France Révolution française de 1848: Notices thématiques en relation (1 ressources dans data.bnf.fr) Termes plus larges (1) Europe -- 1848-1849. The uprisings were poorly coordinated, but had in common a rejection of traditional, autocratic political structures in the 39 independent states of the German Confederation. La cinquantaine de corps qui gît dans la rue est ramassée et disposée dans des charrettes.