After over 10 years of analyzing DNA samples from hundreds of people, the National Geographic Genographic Project (NGGP) surprisingly uncovered the fact that Egyptians are not Arabs as most of them believed.The study presented graphs that show the global genetic makeup of nationals in each country. The team compared the samples from the mummies with DNA (both ancient and modern) from people living between Egypt and Ethiopia. Comment on … The researchers extracted DNA from the heads of five Egyptian mummies that were housed at the institution. [36], According to Y-DNA analysis by Hassan et al. [9], The study was able to measure the mitochondrial DNA of 90 individuals, and it showed that the mitochondrial DNA composition of Egyptian mummies has shown a high level of affinity with the DNA of the populations of the Near East. [19], Luis et al. Ancient genome from this area contains almost no sub-Saharan DNA that dominates the genetic profile of modern Egyptians It more closely resembles the genetic heritage of … Another study links Egyptians in general with people from modern Eritrea and Ethiopia. One of the mummies analyzed as part of the study. Although some of the first extractions of ancient DNA were from mummified remains, scientists have raised doubts as to whether genetic data, especially nuclear genome data, from mummies would be reliable, even if it could be recovered. The ancient Egyptians Based on the modern population of Egypt, and removing the foreign elements, it is reasonable to assume that the ancient Egyptians belonged primarily to haplogroups E1b1b and T. Nowadays about half of the Egyptian paternal lines could be descended from invaders, notably from the Arabic peninsula (hg J1, about 1/3 of the population), but also from Greece, Anatolia and Persia. A study published in 1993 was performed on ancient mummies of the 12th Dynasty, which identified multiple lines of descent. Analyzing samples spanning over a millennium, researchers looked for genetic differences compared with Egyptians today. "A lot of people has assumed foreign invaders ... brought a lot of genetic ancestry into the region," Krause said. In addition, Copts carried 14% M1 and 7% L1c. However, blood typing of Dynastic period mummies found their ABO frequencies to be most similar to that of modern Egyptians. A recent DNA study suggests that the breed is not of ancient origin, but a moderately recent development from various other breeds. Egyptian scholars have tested the autosomal and Y-DNA markers of three Pharaohs of the 18th dynasty : Amenhotep III, his son Akhenaten and grandson Tutankhamun. "The genetics of the Abusir el-Meleq community did not undergo any major shifts during the 1,300-year timespan we studied," said Wolfgang Haak, group leader at the Max Planck Institute. That is, at least genetically, a team of scientists have found. The human remains were discovered in the 1920s by a historian studying papyrus writings, says Krause. The First Genome Data from Ancient Egyptian Mummies. This is not the end. Dugoujon J.M., Coudray C., Torroni A., Cruciani F., Scozzari F., Moral P., Louali N., Kossmann M. Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt By Kathryn A. Bard, Steven Blake Shubert pp 278-279, Shomarka Keita: What genetics can tell us, "Ancient Egyptian mummy genomes suggest an increase of Sub-Saharan African ancestry in post-Roman periods", "DNA discovery unlocks secrets of ancient Egyptians", Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, "Ancient Egyptians more closely related to Europeans than modern Egyptians, scientists claim", "A predominantly neolithic origin for Y-chromosomal DNA variation in North Africa", "mtDNA analysis of Nile River Valley populations: A genetic corridor or a barrier to migration? [37] E1b1b/E3b reaches its highest frequencies among Berbers and Somalis. Although some of the first extractions of ancient DNA were from mummified remains, scientists have raised doubts as to whether genetic data, especially nuclear genome data, from mummies would be reliable, even if it could be recovered. Consequently, most DNA studies have been carried out on modern Egyptian populations with the intent of learning about the influences of historical migrations on the population of Egypt. The first whole genome analysis of ancient Egyptian mummies has revealed that they were more closely related to other ancient people from the Levant, while … Many people don't know that Copts are an ethnoreligious Christian group and comprises people belonging to the Coptic faith in Egypt, Sudan and Libya. Even under the best preservation conditions, there is an upper boundary of 0.4–1.5 million years for a sample to contain sufficient DNA for sequencing technologies. But there was one persistent hole in ancient Egyptian identity: their chromosomes. ", "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: evidence for bidirectional corridors of human migrations", "Ethiopian mitochondrial DNA heritage: tracking gene flow across and around the gate of tears", "Mitochondrial lineage M1 traces an early human backflow to Africa", "Introducing the Algerian mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome profiles into the North African landscape", "Tracing past human male movements in northern/eastern Africa and western Eurasia: new clues from Y-chromosomal haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12", "Genomic ancestry of North Africans supports back-to-Africa migrations", "The genetics of East African populations: a Nilo-Saharan component in the African genetic landscape", "Early back-to-Africa migration into the Horn of Africa", "Supplementary Text S1: Affinities of the Ethio-Somali ancestry component", "North African populations carry the signature of admixture with Neandertals", "Y-chromosome variation among Sudanese: restricted gene flow, concordance with language, geography, and history", "Phylogeographic Refinement and Large Scale Genotyping of Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup E Provide New Insights into the Dispersal of Early Pastoralists in the African Continent", "Genetic Patterns of Y-chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Variation, with Implications to the Peopling of the Sudan",, Articles with dead external links from July 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Egyptians from El-Hayez Oasis (Western Desert), This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 16:10. (2004) found that the male haplogroups in a sample of 147 Egyptians were E1b1b (36.1%, predominantly E-M78), J (32.0%), G (8.8%), T(8.2%), and R (7.5%). [34] They also associate the Coptic component with Ancient Egyptian ancestry, without the later Arabic influence that is present among other Egyptians, especially people of the Sinai.[40]. [34][35], North Moroccans as well as Libyans and Egyptians carry higher proportions of European and Middle Eastern ancestral components, respectively, whereas Tunisian Berbers and Saharawi are those populations with the highest autochthonous North African component. Underhill (2002), Bellwood and Renfrew, ed., Inference of Neolithic Population Histories using Y-chromosome Haplotypes, Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research. Scientists analysing ancient DNA from Egyptian mummies have discovered they overwhelmingly share genes with people from Europe and not Africa, as previously believed. Contamination from handling and intrusion from microbes create obstacles to the recovery of ancient DNA. Depending on which way you see it, ancient Egyptians have the privilege or ignominy of being one of the most investigated peoples of antiquity. Researchers use Y-DNA, mtDNA, and other autosomal DNAs to identify haplogroups and haplotypes in ancient populations of Egypt, Persia, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Arabia, the Levant, and other areas. Well it depends how ancient… It is important to note that ancient Egypt was conquered and settled by several Eurasian Kingdoms that occupied the ancient kingdom for over 2,800 years of its history. The researchers successfully recovered and analyzed ancient DNA from Egyptian mummies dating from approximately 1400 BCE to 400 CE. Updated 1346 GMT (2146 HKT) June 23, 2017. Ancient Southern Egypt might be a different matter, however, where populations lived closer to Nubia, home of the "Black Pharaohs" in what is now Sudan. However, genetic studies of ancient Egyptian mummies are rare due to methodological and contamination issues. (CNN)Ancient Egyptians and their modern counterparts share less in common than you might think. Researchers from the University of Tuebingen and the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, both in Germany, have decoded the genome of ancient Egyptians for the first time, with unexpected results. E1b1b subclades are characteristic of some Afro-Asiatic speakers and are believed to have originated in either the Middle East, North Africa, or the Horn of Africa. Obtaining well-preserved, uncontaminated DNA from mummies has been a problem for the field of archaeogenetics and these samples provided "the first reliable data set obtained from ancient Egyptians using high-throughput DNA sequencing methods". [23][26] Though there has been much debate of the origins of haplogroup M1 a 2007 study had concluded that M1 has West Asia origins not a Sub Saharan African origin, although the majority of the M1a lineages found outside and inside Africa had a more recent eastern Africa origin[27] Origin A 2003 Y chromosome study was performed by Lucotte on modern Egyptians, with haplotypes V, XI, and IV being most common. Haplotypes V, XI, and IV are all predominantly North African/Horn of African haplotypes, and they are far more dominant in Egyptians than in Middle Eastern or European groups. Much greater levels of sub-Saharan African ancestry are located in current … The hot climate of Egypt combined with the embalming process practiced by ancient Egyptians destroyed most DNA. identified an ancestral autosomal component of West Eurasian origin that is common to many modern Afroasiatic-speaking populations in Northeast Africa. Additionally, three of the ancient Egyptian individuals were analysed for Y-DNA, two were assigned to the Middle-Eastern haplogroup J and one to haplogroup E1b1b1 common in North Africa. This period covered the rule of Alexander the Great (332-323 B.C. Scientists have. For years, researchers have argued if ancient Egyptians resembled modern Arabs or if they looked more like sub-Saharan Africans. Ancient DNA (aDNA) is DNA isolated from ancient specimens. A scientist at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History looks at a jaw bone. [16], Genetic analysis of modern Egyptians reveals that they have paternal lineages common to other indigenous Afroasiatic-speaking populations in Maghreb and Horn of Africa, and to Middle Eastern peoples; these lineages would have spread during the Neolithic and were maintained by the predynastic period. [10][11] A shared drift and mixture analysis of the DNA of these ancient Egyptian mummies shows that the connection is strongest with ancient populations from the Levant, the Near East and Anatolia, and to a lesser extent modern populations from the Near East and the Levant. Cruciani et al. [6], In 2013, Khairat et al. Or African! The country’s largest-ever research project is seeking an answer to this mystery. The paper cites increased mobility along the Nile, increased long-distance commerce and the era of the trans-Saharan slave trade as potential reasons why. "( When using East African admixed population as reference) The study's authors cautioned that the mummies may be unrepresentative of the Ancient Egyptian population as a whole, since they were recovered from the northern part of Egypt. (1999) on mitochondrial DNA clines along the Nile Valley found that a Eurasian cline runs from Northern Egypt to Southern Sudan and a Sub-Saharan cline from Southern Sudan to Northern Egypt. The aim was to determine the cause of death of Tutankhamun, who died at age 19. Haplotype V is common in Berbers and has a low frequency outside North Africa. Extracting genome data is a new frontier for Egyptologists, however. [38] The next most common haplogroups borne by Copts are R1b (15%), common in parts of Western Eurasia and Central Africa, and the widespread African haplogroup B (15%). ), the Ptolemaic dynasty (323-30 B.C.) (2008), 45% of Copts in Sudan (of a sample of 33) carry haplogroup J. [11], Genome-wide data could only be successfully extracted from three of these individuals. For the first time, scientists have extracted full nuclear genome data from ancient Egyptian mummies. They however did not release the genetic da… Ancient Egyptian Autosomal DNA. These connections date back to Prehistory and occurred at a variety of scales, including overland and maritime commerce, diplomacy, immigration, invasion and deportation"[14][11], Professor Stephen Quirke, an Egyptologist at University College London, expressed caution about the researchers’ broader claims, saying that “There has been this very strong attempt throughout the history of Egyptology to disassociate ancient Egyptians from the modern population.” He added that he was “particularly suspicious of any statement that may have the unintended consequences of asserting – yet again from a northern European or North American perspective – that there’s a discontinuity there [between ancient and modern Egyptians]". and part of Roman rule (30 B.C.-A.D. 641). In total, the authors recovered mitochondrial genomes from 90 individuals, and genome-wide datasets from three individuals. Scientists thought ancient Egyptian mummies didn’t have any DNA left. [4], A study using the Y-chromosome of modern Egyptian males found similar results, namely that North East African haplogroups are predominant in the South but the predominant haplogroups in the North are characteristic of North African and West Eurasian populations. The genetic history of Egypt's demographics reflects its geographical location at the crossroads of several major biocultural areas: North Africa, the Sahara, the Middle East, the Mediterranean and Sub-Saharan Africa. The Academy of Scientific Research and Technology has launched a US$64 million study to build a reference genome for today’s Egyptians, study ancient Egyptians’ genes, and look for genomic links to illnesses. Bone, soft tissue and teeth were all studied as part of the research. May 30, 2017 . Complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences were obtained for 90 of the mummies and were compared with each other and with several other ancient and modern datasets. The researchers sampled mitochondrial DNA. By Logistics in forum Ancient (aDNA) Replies: 12 Last Post: 07-13-2016, 09:11 PM. http://www.lifespiritofamenkhem.comNOT Negroid!! Modern Egyptians generally shared this maternal haplogroup pattern, but also carried more Sub-Saharan African clades. As the English-language exonym suggests, it is sometimes claimed that the Pharaoh Hound descends from the dogs shown in the tomb paintings of Ancient Egypt. furthermore, "Genetic continuity between ancient and modern Egyptians cannot be ruled out despite this sub-Saharan African influx, while continuity with modern Ethiopians is not supported". The team's findings do come with one obvious caveat: "All our genetic data (was) obtained from a single site in Middle Egypt and may not be representative for all of ancient Egypt," the paper concedes. Recommended Videos. [18] In addition, some studies suggest lesser ties with populations in the Middle East, as well as some groups in southern Europe. The specimens were living in a period stretching from the late New Kingdom to the Roman era (1388 BCE–426 CE). However, analysis of the mummies' mtDNA haplogroups found that they shared greater mitochondrial affinities with modern populations from the Near East and the Levant compared to modern Egyptians.