Santiago Juan-Navarro a professor at Florida International University has described Diop as having "undertaken the task of supporting this Afrocentric view of history from an equally radical and 'mythic' point of view". The phenotype is a reality, physical appearance is a reality. Rousseau, Madeleine and Cheikh Anta Diop (1948), "1848 Abolition de l'esclavage – 1948 evidence de la culture nègre". ANTA DIOP, CHEIKH. Cheikh Anta Diop, a modern champion of African identity, was born in Diourbel, Senegal on December 29, Cheikh Anta Diop was born at the end of in Diourbel, Senegal, a city reknowned for spawning great Islamic philosophers and historians. bibliographie de cheikh anta diop pdf books download bibliographie de cheikh anta diop pdf books read online ibrahima… Ce savant doit être connu de tous les africains. If we speak only of genotype, I can find a black who, at the level of his chromosomes, is closer to a Swede than Peter Botha is. Nouvelles recherches sur l ’ é gyptien ancien et les langues n é gro-africaines modernes: compl é ments à Parent é g é n é tique de l ’ é gyptien pharaonique et des langues n é gro-africaines , Pr é sence Africaine, 1988. Cheikh Anta Diop fue un escritor, antropólogo, físico nuclear y político panafricanista senegalés que estudió los orígenes de la raza humana y la cultura africana. Permaneció allí 15 años, estudiando física bajo la dirección de Frédéric Joliot-Curie, yerno de Marie Curie, llegando a traducir partes de la Teoría de la Relatividad de Einstein a su idioma nativo, el wolof.  Diop's work has posed important questions about the cultural bias inherent in scientific research. Diop contributed an article to the journal: "Quand pourra-t-on parler d'une renaissance africaine" (When we will be able to speak of an African Renaissance?). However, Diop thought, as it is called, is paradigmatic to Afrocentricity. cit. Cheikh Anta Diop (ed.) Diop was subsequently arrested and thrown in jail where he nearly died. Cheikh Anta Diop, a modern champion of African identity, was born in Diourbel, Senegal on December 29, Cheikh Anta Diop was born at the end of in Diourbel, Senegal, a city reknowned for spawning great Islamic philosophers and historians. Diop also acknowledged that the ancient Egyptians absorbed "foreign" genes at various times in their history (the Hyksos for example) but held that this admixture did not change their essential ethnicity.  Joseph Greenberg rejected Meinhof's and Seligman's views on "Hamite" cultural history, and argued that the term "Hamite" should be completely abandoned, and replaced in linguistics by Afroasiatic languages for the family of five coordinate branches (Semitic, Berber, Ancient Egyptian, Cushitic and Chadic), all of which but the Chadic languages had long been recognised as one group. Under the "true negro" approach, Diop contended that those peoples who did not meet the stereotypical classification were attributed to mixture with outside peoples, or were split off and assigned to Caucasoid clusters. (1978). "Apportionment of Racial Diversity"; Keita and Kittles, "The Persistence...", op. University of California, Santa Barbara, and James M. Burns, a professor in history at Clemson University, have both referred to Diop's writings of Ancient Egypt and his theories, characterizing it as "revisionist". Muchos de sus trabajos han sido criticados y tachados de revisionistas y el no valerse de ningún método científico o histórico le ha valido el apelativo de pseudohistoriador.. Ancient Egyptian and the négro-africain languages such as Wolof are related, but any common origin may be very remote and their relation may not be close. He said that their cultural, genetic and material links could not be defined away or separated into a regrouped set of racial clusters. In 1949, Diop registered a proposed title for a Doctor of Letters thesis, "The Cultural Future of African thought," under the direction of Professor Gaston Bachelard. Stevanovitch A, Gilles A, Bouzaid E, Kefi R, Paris F, Gayraud RP, Spadoni JL, El-Chenawi F, Beraud-Colomb E., "Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in a sedentary population from Egypt".  Modern physical anthropologists also question splitting of peoples into racial zones. In 1951 he registered a second thesis title "Who were the pre-dynastic Egyptians" under Professor Marcel Griaule. Material solidarity – alleviating moral or material misery. Quoted in Shomarka Keita, "Communications".  He concluded that Diop had assumed Egyptian and Wolof were related and then looked for ways to connect their features, disregarding evidence from other languages which might cast doubt on the resemblances claimed. All Greenberg's African Language papers were republished The Languages of Africa (1966), Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Cheikh Anta Diop Grand prix de la mémoire: Grandes Premios de las Asociaciones Literarias, https://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cheikh_Anta_Diop&oldid=131004338, Wikipedia:Páginas con referencias sin URL y con fecha de acceso, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores VIAF, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores ISNI, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores BNE, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores BNF, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores CANTIC, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores GND, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores LCCN, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores SNAC, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores BIBSYS, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores UB, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores Open Library, Wikipedia:Control de autoridades con 15 elementos, Licencia Creative Commons Atribución Compartir Igual 3.0. Haz tu selección entre imágenes premium sobre Cheikh Anta Diop de la más alta calidad. Muchos de sus trabajos han sido criticados y tachados de revisionistas y el no valerse de ningún método científico o histórico le ha valido el … More contemporary critics assert that notions of the Sahara as a dominant barrier in isolating sub-Saharan populations are both flawed and simplistic in broad historical context, given the constant movement of people over time, the fluctuations of climate over time (the Sahara was once very fertile), and the substantial representation of "sub Saharan" traits in the Nile Valley among people like the Badari.. Throughout history, it has been the phenotype which has been at issue, we mustn't lose sight of this fact. Sus primeros pasos académicos los dio en una escuela tradicional islámica. It is the physical appearance which counts. Diop's view that the scholarship of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century was based on a racist view of Africans was regarded as controversial when he wrote in the 1950s through to the early 1970s, the field of African scholarship still being influenced by Carleton S. Coon and others. All these factors combined, based on the formation of a federated and unified Africa, culturally and otherwise, are surmised to be the only way for Africa to become the power in the world that she should rightfully be. 97–8. The new topics did not relate to ancient Egypt but were concerned with the forms of organisation of African and European societies and how they evolved. (2003–2004), "L'origine des Peuls : les principales thèses confrontées aux traditions africaines et à l'égyptologie". Here’s our selection of 8 excerpts from Diop’s writings. When he published many of his ideas as the book Nations nègres et culture (Negro Nations and Culture), it made him one of the most controversial historians of his time. 80–82. Le sobrevivieron sus tres hijos y su esposa. , In 1953, he first met Frédéric Joliot-Curie, Marie Curie's son-in-law, and in 1957 Diop began specializing in nuclear physics at the Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry of the College de France which Frederic Joliot-Curie ran until his death in 1958, and the Institut Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris. Cheikh Anta Diop was an Afrocentric historian, anthropologist, physicist and politician who studied the human race’s origins and pre-colonial African cul. Nevertheless, he awarded Diop and similar scholars credit for posing these problems.. He declined to seek the opinion of other scholars and answer their criticism, although this is the normal procedure in academic debate. Cheikh Anta Diop, op. Test par la mélanine," Diop described the technique used to determine the melanin content of Egyptian mummies. The African Origin of Civilization: Myth Or Reality, Summary of Cheikh Anta Diop's Work (in French), Cheikh Anta Diop, The Pharaoh of Knowledge, Listen to interviews with Cheikh Anta Diop (in French), Organisation of African Trade Union Unity, Pan-African Freedom Movement for East and Central Africa, Popular and Social League of the Great Sahara Tribes, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cheikh_Anta_Diop&oldid=996943950, National Democratic Rally (Senegal) politicians, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2009, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from March 2016, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. UNESCO, (1978). Cheikh Anta Diop born on December 29th of 1923, was a historian, anthropologist, physicist, and politician who studied the human race’s origins and pre-colonial African culture. As one scholar at the 1974 symposium put it:. Alan R. Templeton, "Human Races: A Genetic and Evolutionary Perspective". APAM had been set up in 1936 by people on the political left wing to bring culture to wider audiences. PDF Sugimoto PDF Sugimoto. Después de 1960 Diop retornó a Senegal, y continuó escribiendo. There are common patterns such as circumcision, matriarchy etc., but whether these are part of a unique, gentler, more positive "Southern cradle" of peoples, versus a more grasping, patriarchal-flavored "Northern cradle" are considered problematic[weasel words] by many scholars,[who?] cit. The RDA students continued to be highly active in politicizing the anti-colonial struggle and popularized the slogan "National independence from the Sahara to the Cape, and from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic. Diop strongly refused to enter into any negotiations until two conditions were met. , But it is only the most gratuitous theory that considers the Dinka, the Nouer and the Masai, among others, to be Caucasoids. Cheikh Anta Diop está en Facebook. Publicó El origen africano de la civilización: mito o realidad en 1974. Había dicho: Diop usó esta técnica para determinar el contenido de melanina de las momias egipcias. Ha sido considerado uno de los más grandes historiadores africanos del siglo XX.  According to Marnie Hughes-Warrington, Diop's works were criticised by leading French Africanists, but they (and later critics) noted the value of his works for the generation of a "politically useful mythology", that would promote African unity. Universitato Cheikh Anta Diop antaŭas al senegala sendependeco kaj eliĝis el pluraj francaj institucioj establitaj de la kolonia administracio.  Under this approach, racial categories such as "Blacks" or "Caucasoids" are discarded in favor of localized populations showing a range of physical variation. Kanta Ka. This argument remains a hallmark of Diop's contribution. Obenga, Théophile. For instance, Diop suggested that the uses of terminology like "Mediterranean" or "Middle Eastern", or statistically classifying all who did not meet the "true" Black stereotype as some other race, were all attempts to use race to differentiate among African peoples. For this history student, it is quite a symbol: “ It is a pride to have a leader, Cheikh Anta Diop, who really allowed us to look further, especially on science. Discover the real story, facts, and details of Cheikh Anta Diop. He was keenly aware of the difficulties that such a scientific effort would entail and warned that "It was particularly necessary to avoid the pitfall of facility. Cheikh Anta Diop Historien et anthropologue sénégalais ayant étudié les origines de la race humaine et de la culture africaine précoloniale. 49–54. These researchers hold that they too often rely on a stereotypical conception of pure or distinct races that then go on to intermingle. (Tras su muerte, la universidad fue nombrada en su honor: Universidad de Dakar Cheikh Anta Diop). , Analyses of other scholars (Hiernaux 1975, Keita, 1990 et al.) It found that some European researchers had earlier tried to make Africans seem a special case, somehow different from the rest of the world's population flow and mix. Diop's family was part of the Mouride brotherhood, the only independent Muslim fraternity in Africa according to Diop. ", In 1948 Diop edited with Madeleine Rousseau, a professor of art history, a special edition of the journal Musée vivant, published by the Association populaire des amis des musées (APAM). Keita, "Further studies of crania", op.  Under his leadership the first post-war pan-African student congress was organized in 1951. was dissolved, Diop and other former members reconstituted themselves under a new party, the Front National Sénégalais (FNS) in 1963. His cultural theory attempted to show that Egypt was part of the African environment as opposed to incorporating it into Mediterranean or Middle Eastern venues. Arbitrarily classifying Maasai, Ethiopians, Shillouk, Nubians, etc., as Caucasian is thus problematic, since all these peoples are northeast African populations and show normal variation well within the 85–90% specified by DNA analysis. 79–104 in Fauvelle-Aymar, François-Xavier, Chrétien, Jean-Pierre and, Perrot Claude-Hélène (eds). Senegalese politician, historian and scientist (1923-1986), Critique of previous scholarship on Africa, Physical variability of the African people, Cultural unity of African peoples as part of a southern cradle, Diop's thought and criticism of modern racial clustering, Diop and the arbitrary sorting of categories, Diop and criticism of the Saharan barrier thesis, Diop and criticism of true Negro classification schemes, Diop and criticism of mixed-race theories, Molefi Kete Asante, "Cheikh Anta Diop: An Intellectual Portrait" (Univ of Sankore Press: December 30, 2007). The widow of the Senegalese scholar and Egyptologist Cheikh Anta Diop, Louise Marie Diop, died Friday in Paris at the age of 90 following a long illness. He proposed that African culture should be rebuilt on the basis of ancient Egypt, in the same way that European culture was built upon the legacies of ancient Greece and Rome. cit. Cheikh Anta Diop, a modern champion of African identity, was born in Diourbel, Senegal on December 29, Cheikh Anta Diop was born at the end of in Diourbel, Senegal, a city reknowned for spawning great Islamic philosophers and historians. Cheikh Anta Diop: revolución en la historia de África. The party, though not officially recognized, continued strong political activity along the same lines as the BMS. (1993), "La parenté génétique entre l'egyptien pharaonique et des langues négro-africaines moderns: L’exemple du duala", pp. Y como cada año, conmemoraremos su memoria, de acuerdo con el ritual establecido durante años por aquellos que lo reconocen como "antepasado bendito", con todo lo que eso implica. Frank M. Snowden, Jr., "Bernal's 'Blacks', Herodotus, and the other classical evidence". Il s'est attaché sa vie durant à montrer l'apport de l'Afrique et en particulier de l'Afrique noire à la culture et à la civilisation mondiale. Join Facebook to connect with Cheikh Anta Diop Diop and others you may know. Cheikh Anta Diop’s most popular book is The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality.  Toyin Falola has called Diop's work "passionate, combative, and revisionist". Cheikh Anta Diop was an Afrocentric historian, anthropologist, physicist and politician who studied the human race’s origins and pre-colonial African cul. The current structure of the Egyptian population may be the result of further influence of neighbouring populations on this ancestral population, Diop disputed sweeping definitions of mixed races in relation to African populations, particularly when associated with the Nile Valley. Con 23 años fue a París en 1946 para convertirse en físico. A number of individuals such as US college professor Leonard Jeffries have advanced a more chauvinist view, citing Diop's work. He holds that the range of peoples and phenotypes under the designation "negre" included those with a wide range of physical variability, from light brown skin and aquiline noses to jet black skin and frizzy hair, well within the diversity of peoples of the Nilotic region. S. Ademola Ajayi, "Cheikh Anta Diop" in Kevin Shillington (ed.). They contend the test is inappropriate to apply to ancient Egyptian mummies, due to the effects of embalming and deterioration over time. S. O. Y. Keita, "Early Nile Valley Farmers, From El-Badari, Aboriginals or 'European' Agro-Nostratic Immigrants? For example, ancient Egyptian matches with Indians and Europeans are generic in nature (due to the broad categories used for matching purposes with these populations) and are not due to gene flow. 65–92. BIOGRAPHIE DE CHEIKH ANTA DIOP PDF - Cheikh Anta Diop was an Afrocentric historian, anthropologist, physicist and politician who studied the human race's origins and pre-colonial African cul. Cheikh Anta Diop (29 d'avientu de 1923 - 7 de febreru de 1986) foi un hestoriador y un antropólogu senegalés qu'estudió los oríxenes del home y la cultura africana precolonial. "The Earliest Semitic Society: Linguistic Data", Interview conducted by Charles Finch III in Dakar on behalf of the. Diop also claimed to be "the only Black African of his generation to have received training as an Egyptologist" and "more importantly" he "applied this encyclopedic knowledge to his researches on African history. Robert O. Collins, a former history professor at UNESCO Symposium on the Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of Meroitic Script.  In Paris, Diop studied under André Aymard, professor of History and later Dean of the Faculty of Letters at the University of Paris and he said that he had "gained an understanding of the Greco-Latin world as a student of Gaston Bachelard, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, André Leroi-Gourhan, and others".  Critics of this study in turn hold that it achieves its results by manipulation of data clusters and analysis categories, casting a wide net to achieve generic, general statistical similarities with populations such as Europeans and Indians. While acknowledging the common genetic inheritance of all humankind and common evolutionary threads, Diop identified a black phenotype, stretching from India, to Australia to Africa, with physical similarities in terms of dark skin and a number of other characteristics. ix–x) to Obenga. Those who have followed us in our efforts for more than 20 years know now that this was not the case and that this fear remained unfounded. (1977), Parenté génétique de l'egyptien pharaonique et des langues négro-africaines. - Cheikh Anta Diop estudou Química e Física Nuclear e criou, em 1966, o primeiro laboratório africano de datação por radiocarbono, na universidade que hoje tem o seu nome. Demba Sy, Papa, "L'itinéraire Politique de Cheikh Anta Diop". He specified that he used the terms "negro", "black", "white" and "race" as "immediate givens" in the Bergsonian sense, and went on to suggest operational definitions of these terms. Cheikh Anta Diop nació en Diourbel, Senegal. In 1918, the French created the "école africaine de médecine" (African medical school), mostly to serve white and Métis students but also open to the small educated elite of the four free towns of Senegal with nominal French citizenship. , The Swiss archaeologist Charles Bonnet's discoveries at the site of Kerma shed some light on the theories of Diop. In his "Evolution of the Negro World" in Présence Africaine (1964), Diop castigated European scholars who posited a separate evolution of various types of humankind and denied the African origin of homo sapiens. However such conceptions are inconsistently applied when it comes to African peoples, where typically, a "true negro" is identified and defined as narrowly as possible, but no similar attempt is made to define a "true white". Uhem Mesut, le renouvellement des naissances: http://uhem-mesut.com/ These connections appear not only in linguistics, (see Languages demonstrating section below) but in cultural areas such as religion. Cheikh Anta Diop et Théophile Obenga se sont attachés, parallèlement à leurs recherches, à sensibiliser les Africains à l'histoire de l'Afrique avant la colonisation, aux enjeux vitaux qui lui sont associés, à faire naître des vocations, au moyen de conférences, de colloques, de longues interviews en Afrique, en Europe, dans les Caraïbes, aux États-Unis. , As regards living peoples, the pattern of complexity repeats itself, calling into question the merging and splitting methods of Jensen, et al.  In his 1954 thesis, Diop argued that ancient Egypt had been populated by Black people. Frank Yurco, "An Egyptological Review", 1996, in Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers. , Diop's arguments to place Egypt in the cultural and genetic context of Africa met a wide range of condemnation and rejection. Diop's own Wolof studies were examined by Russell Schuh, a specialist in the Chadic languages, who found little resemblance or connection between many of the Wolof etymologies cited by Diop and Egyptian, of the type that are found when comparing Wolof to a known related language like Fula. J. D. Walker, "The Misrepresentation of Diop's Views". May 12, … He ultimately translated parts of Einstein's Theory of Relativity into his native Wolof. From 1956, he taught physics and chemistry in two Paris lycees as an assistant master, before moving to the College de France. Diop repudiated racism or supremacist theories, arguing for a more balanced view of African history than he felt it was getting during his era. Extremely warlike peoples, for example, the Zulu, appear frequently in the "Southern Cradle". Asimismo, escribió el capítulo acerca de los orígenes de los egipcios en la historia general de África de la UNESCO. They hold that such splitting is arbitrary insertion of data into pre-determined pigeonholes and the selective grouping of samples. Su voz parece tan cercana… Sea como fuere, los interrogantes del autor de Conversaciones con Cheikh Anta Diop son los nuestros, los del común de los mortales, y él sabe devolvernos su cosecha en un lenguaje brillante y honesto, lejos del deplorable pathos de moda. While acknowledging that the ancient Egyptian population was mixed, a fact confirmed by all the anthropological analyses, writers nevertheless speak of an Egyptian race, linking it to a well-defined human type, the white, Hamitic branch, also called Caucasoid, Mediterranean, Europid or Eurafricanid. He originally thought to study mathematics as his major of study. His interpretation of anthropological data (such as the role of matriarchy) and archeological data led him to conclude that Egyptian culture was a Black African culture. El intelectual senegalés, uno de los padres del afrocentrismo, cumpliría este sábado 95 años. Schuenemann, Verena; Peltzer, Alexander; Welte, Beatrix; Van Pelt, Paul; Molak, Martyna; Wang, Chuan Chao; Furtwängler, Anja; Urban, Christian; Reiter, Ella; Nieselt, Kay; Teßmann, Barbara; Francken, Michael; Harvati, Katerina; Haak, Wolfgang; Schiffels, Stephan; Krause, Johannes (2017). Within a very short time, however, he was drawn deeper into studies relating to … (1975). Cheikh Anta Diop, one of the major world scholars, was born near Diourbel, Senegal on December 29, 1923. Variation need not be the result of a "mix" from categories such as Negroid or Caucasoid, but may be simply a contiuum of peoples in that region from skin color, to facial features, to hair, to height.  Tourneux's main criticisms are that many words in the lists used to make comparisons may have been loaned from unrelated languages (including modern Arabic), many of the claimed resemblances are far-fetched and that, when Diop transliterated Wolof words on the principles applied to Ancient Egyptian writings, he distorted them.. , Diop's work has posed questions about cultural bias in scientific research. ", Academic detractors charge Diop with racism, based particularly on his claim that the ancient Egyptians were black. This symposium generated a lively debate about, but no consensus on, Diop's theories.  This does not necessarily imply a genetic relationship, however. Ferocious, warlike nature with spirit of survival. La educación de Diop -según él- incluyó historia africana, egiptología, lingüística, antropología, economía y sociología. Froment, Alain, "Origine et évolution de l'homme dans la pensée de Cheikh Anta Diop: une analyse critique", Bruce Trigger, 'Nubian, Negro, Black, Nilotic? In it he argues that only a united and federated African state will be able to overcome underdevelopment. In 1957 he registered his new thesis title "Comparative study of political and social systems of Europe and Africa, from Antiquity to the formation of modern states." Many cultures the world over show similar developments and a mixture of traits. Boeken van Cheikh Anta Diop lezen?  Diop by contrast in his African Origin of Civilization, argues against the European stereotypical conception.  In an interview in 1985, Diop argued that race was a relevant category and that phenotype or physical appearance is what matters in historic social relations. , In 1974, Diop was one of about 20 participants in a UNESCO symposium in Cairo, where he presented his theories to specialists in Egyptology. bibliographie de cheikh anta diop pdf books download bibliographie de cheikh anta diop pdf books read online ibrahima… Such tropical elements were thus in place from the earliest beginnings of Egyptian civilization, not isolated somewhere South behind the Saharan barrier. In linguistics, he believed in particular that the Wolof language of contemporary West Africa is related to ancient Egyptian. Nació en Kaolack.Actualmente vive en Dakar.Ha estudiado en University Cheikh Anta Diop of Dakar.Tiene una beca París 2019 / 2020 en la universidad Université Paris Sud - Paris 11 Idea of peace, justice, goodness and optimism. Ancient Egyptians such as the Badarians show greater statistical affinities to tropical African types and are not identical to Europeans. Diop, inspired by the efforts of Aimé Césaire toward these ends, but not being a literary man himself, took up the call to rebuild the African personality from a strictly scientific, socio-historical perspective. ", The 1957 and 1966 editions of Seligman's "Races of Africa" retained this statement, and many anthropologists accepted the Hamitic hypothesis into the 1960s. Cheikh Anta Diop was an Afrocentric historian, anthropologist, physicist and politician who studied the human race's origins and pre-colonial African culture. Greenberg, Joseph H. (1950), "Studies in African Linguistic Classification: IV. Égyptien ancien et négro-africain, Cahiers Ferdinand de Saussure, No. Under significant political pressure president Senghor attempted to appease Diop by offering him and his supporters a certain numbers of government positions. The party was shortly thereafter banned for opposing Senghor's efforts to consolidate power in his own hands.  He said that the Egyptian language and culture had later been spread to West Africa. , Diop's theory on variability is also supported by a number of scholars mapping human genes using modern DNA analysis. In summary, modern anthropological and DNA scholarship repeats and confirms many of the criticisms made by Diop as regards to arbitrary classifications and splitting of African peoples, and confirms the genetic linkages of Nile Valley peoples with other African groups, including East Africa, the Sahara, and the Sudan. Tourneux (2010), "L'argument linguistique chez Cheikh Anta Diop et ses disciples", pp. Cheikh Anta Diop. Diop's fundamental criticism of scholarship on the African peoples was that classification schemes pigeonholed them into categories defined as narrowly as possible, while expanding definitions of Caucasoid groupings as broadly as possible. Mixed-race theories have also been challenged by contemporary scholars in relation to African genetic diversity. (F. Yurco "An Egyptological Review", 1996), Diop's work has been subjected to criticism from a number of scholars.  His thought is thus not the "Stolen Legacy" argument of writers such as George James or the "Black Athena" notions of Martin Bernal.