David nalle: Albrecht Durer Gothic. Albrecht Dürer. [42] A similar rhinoceros, in relief, decorates a panel in one of the bronze west doors of Pisa Cathedral. Work location: Deutsch: Nürnberg, Augsburg, Venedig, Niederlande. By this time the block was very damaged; the border lines were chipped, there were numerous woodworm holes and a pronounced crack had developed through the rhino's legs. Albrecht Dürer The Rhinoceros woodcut with letterpress text, 1515, on laid paper, watermark Anchor in a Circle (M. 171), a good impression of this rare and important woodcut, first edition (of eight), with the crack in the block just beginning to show in the right hind leg, with the complete letterpress text above, with 3-5 mm. The rhinoceros is so well-armed that the elephant cannot harm it. Gilles Le Corre: 1525 Durer Initials (2010). ‎Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the great German artist Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) who achieved fame throughout Europe for the power of his images. Durer was a master of the woodcut and had brought greater artistic vision and intellectual depth to the medium. But Durer’s “Rhinoceros” is more than just the depiction of an exotic beast. [47] Semiotician Umberto Eco argues (fetching the idea from E.H. Gombrich, Art and Illusion: A Study in the Psychology of Pictorial Representation, 1961) that Dürer's "scales and imbricated plates" became a necessary element of depicting the animal, even to those who might know better, because "they knew that only these conventionalized graphic signs could denote «rhinoceros» to the person interpreting the iconic sign." Dürer’s Rhinoceros is a woodcut created by Albrecht Dürer in 1515 A.D. As an illustration of an animal at the center of a famous series of events, the woodcut was highly popular in the artist’s lifetime. [30] Alternatively, Dürer's "armour" may represent the heavy folds of thick skin of an Indian rhinoceros, or, as with the other inaccuracies, may simply be misunderstandings or creative additions by Dürer. 136; M., Holl. In particular, Oudry's painting was the inspiration for a plate in Buffon's encyclopedic Histoire naturelle, which was widely copied. He also assures the viewer that “This is an accurate representation”. Schulfilm zu "Rhinocerus", einem Werk des Nürnberger Künstlers Albrecht Dürer aus dem Jahre 1515. From David Tunick, Inc., Albrecht Dürer, The Rhinoceros (1515), Woodcut on laid paper, 8 1/2 × 11 3/4 in The rhinoceros travelled in a ship full of spices. 473x327 (35929 octets) ( fr:Rhinocéros Rhinocéros dessiné par fr:Albrecht_Dürer Albrecht Dürer en fr:1515 1515. Only one impression (example) of Burgkmair's image has survived,[34] whereas Dürer's print survives in many impressions. After a relatively fast voyage of 120 days, the rhinoceros was finally unloaded in Portugal, near the site where the Manueline Belém Tower was under construction. The Rhinoceros, which must have seemed like a mythical beast to those that viewed it first in Lisbon, would have been a potent symbol of that exotic, untamed, outside world to which Europe was bringing order and enlightenment. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Asian animals previously imported for circuses and gladitorial events became scarce or non-existent in Western Europe. See Clarke, p.19, for a photograph of a gargoyle. 241; S.M.S. On the other hand, his depiction of the texture may represent dermatitis induced by the rhinoceros' close confinement during the four-month journey by ship from India to Portugal. Google Arts & Culture features content from over 2000 leading museums and archives who have partnered with the Google Cultural Institute to bring the world's treasures online. (Bedini, p.121.). It has been said of Dürer's woodcut: "probably no animal picture has exerted such a profound influence on the arts".[7]. fr:Utilisateur:Christophe.moustier Christophe.moustier ( fr:Discussion_Utilisateur:Christophe.moustier Discuter) . Albrecht Durer. [17] The vessel passed near Marseille in early 1516. [49], Although very popular, few prints have survived and impressions of the first edition are very rare. The popularity of the inaccurate Dürer image remained undiminished despite an Indian rhinoceros spending eight years in Madrid from 1580 to 1588 (although a few examples of a print of the Madrid rhinoceros sketched by Philippe Galle in Antwerp in 1586, and derivative works, have survived), and the exhibition of a live rhinoceros in London a century later, from 1684–86, and of a second individual after 1739. Hear about the contest held by Manuel I of Portugal. [2] Dürer never saw the actual rhinoceros, which was the first living example seen in Europe since Roman times. It is said that the rhinoceros is fast, impetuous and cunning. Good surviving impressions are rare, however. Dürer’s depiction of the animal shaped the European image of an Indian rhinoceros right up to the mid 18th century, when another specimen arrived in Europe. The animal was examined by scholars and the curious, and letters describing the fantastic creature were sent to correspondents throughout Europe. [1] The image was based on a written description and brief sketch by an unknown artist of an Indian rhinoceros that had arrived in Lisbon earlier that year. Albrecht Dürer Rhinoceros. Dürer's Rhinoceros is the name commonly given to a woodcut executed by German painter and printmaker Albrecht Dürer in 1515. His skill can be seen in the delicate shading and the intricate patterning of the animal’s hide. [31] Dürer also draws a scaly texture over the body of the animal, including the "armour". Together with other precious gifts of silver plate and spices, the rhinoceros, with its new collar of green velvet decorated with flowers, embarked in December 1515 for the voyage from the Tagus to Rome. None of these features is present in a real rhinoceros,[5][6] although the Indian rhinoceros does have deep folds in its skin that can look like armor from a distance. A blackletter. Title: The Rhinoceros. The woodcut was, per Quammen, p.204, cut on the block by a specialist craftsman known as a, Rough translation of the German original. A rhinoceros that was clearly based on Dürer's woodcut was chosen by Alessandro de' Medici as his emblem in June 1536, with the motto "Non vuelvo sin vencer" (old Spanish for "I shall not return without victory"). [11], The block passed into the hands of the Amsterdam printer and cartographer Willem Janssen (also called Willem Blaeu amongst other names). He also notes that the skin of a rhinoceros is rougher than it visually appears and that such plates and scales portray this non-visual information to a degree. Credit Line: Gift of Junius Spencer Morgan, 1919. [25][26] and printed a reversed reflection of it.[20][27]. Medium: Woodcut. 136; M., Holl. [11] Many further printings followed after Dürer's death in 1528, including two in the 1540s, and two more in the late 16th century. Rhinocéros dessiné par Albrecht Dürer en 1515. None of these features is present in a real rhinoceros. Rhinoceros. Bois) (Bartsch's Le Peintre Graveur) 75 (A History of the World in 100 Objects) 160 (Albrecht Dürer: Complete woodcuts) C. D. 125 (Catalogue of Early German and Flemish Woodcuts in the British Museum, Vol. [12] A rhinoceros had not been seen in Europe since Roman times: it had become something of a mythical beast, occasionally conflated in bestiaries with the "monoceros" (unicorn), so the arrival of a living example created a sensation. [38][40], Despite its errors, the image remained very popular,[6] and was taken to be an accurate representation of a rhinoceros until the late 18th century. The previous year, the Pope had been very pleased with Manuel's gift of a white elephant, also from India, which the Pope had named Hanno. Brought from India to the great and powerful King Emanuel of Portugal at Lisbon a live animal called a rhinoceros. Albrecht Dürer never saw a rhinoceros in real life. Le Rhinocéros de Dürer est une gravure sur bois d’Albrecht Dürer datée de 1515.L’image est fondée sur une description écrite et un bref croquis par un artiste inconnu d’un rhinocéros indien (Rhinoceros unicornis) débarqué à Lisbonne plus tôt dans l’année. The rhinoceros’ horn is much larger and imposing than in nature and, indeed, Durer shows the animal as having a second, smaller, spiral horn on its back. ‘Rhinoceros’ was created in 1515 by Albrecht Durer in Northern Renaissance style. The earliest known image of the animal illustrates a poemetto by Florentine Giovanni Giacomo Penni, published in Rome on 13 July 1515, fewer than eight weeks after its arrival in Lisbon. But when Dürer’s rhinoceros arrived in Lisbon, things weren’t quite so straightforward. Albrecht Dürer The Rhinoceros (B. Cole, F.J. (Francis Joseph), "The History of Albrecht Durer's Rhinoceros in Zoological Literature," essay in Underwood, E. Ashworth (ed. Dimensions: image: 8 3/8 x 11 5/8 in. The mission returned without an agreement, but diplomatic gifts were exchanged, including the rhinoceros. He depicts an animal with hard plates that cover its body like sheets of armour, with a gorget at the throat, a solid-looking breastplate, and what appear to be rivets along the seams. Discover and collect art from Albrecht Dürer’s iconic The Rhinoceros series and more. Albrecht Dürer had a showman’s instincts for killer subject matter. It has the colour of a speckled tortoise and it is covered with thick scales. This image of a gift from a colonial governor to his king reflects a confidently expansionist Europe intent on bringing what it saw as its own superior civilisation to a world outside Europe that it thought savage and ignorant. See also a French translation in the doctoral thesis of Bruno Faidutti at l', Group of History and Theory of Science – Dürer's Rhinoceros, História do famoso rhinocerus de Albrecht Dürer, "Albrecht Dürer's Rhinoceros, a drawing and woodcut", The Durer Rhinoceros - Masterpieces of the British Museum, File:Durer's Rhinoceros on Cathedral Door, Pisa C17th.jpg, "Albrecht Dürer: Masterpieces from a Private Collection", Joachim and Anne Meeting at the Golden Gate, Portrait of the Artist's Mother at the Age of 63, Colossal quartzite statue of Amenhotep III, Amun in the form of a ram protecting King Taharqa, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dürer%27s_Rhinoceros&oldid=996864863, Prints and drawings in the British Museum, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with Portuguese-language sources (pt), Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. He places a small twisted horn on its back and gives it scaly legs and saw-like rear quarters. Dürer n’a jamais observé ce rhinocéros qui était le premier individu vivant vu en Europe depuis l’époque romaine. Although the letterpress text atop this broadsheet suggests otherwise, he in fact copied the woodcut from a drawing and a description given by an eyewitness before the ship carrying this gift for the king of Portugal sank on the way from India. It is the size of an elephant but has shorter legs and is almost invulnerable. Le dessin est reporté sur le bois, puis gravé à la pointe et au burin, ensuite le tirage de la gravure fait que le sens est inversé sur la feuille par rapport au dessin initial. The animal had been shipped to Lisbon in 1515 as a gift to King Manuel I of Portugal by Afonso de Albequerque the governor of Portuguese India. Even so, Bruce's own illustration of the African white rhinoceros, which is noticeably different in appearance to the Indian rhinoceros, still shares conspicuous inaccuracies with Dürer's work. [29], Dürer's woodcut is not an accurate representation of a rhinoceros. [43] The rhinoceros was depicted in numerous other paintings and sculptures and became a popular decoration for porcelain. Dürer's "Rhinoceros" was part of the exhibition "Prints and the Pursuit of Knowledge in Early Modern Europe," which was on view September 6–December 10, 2011 at the Arthur M. Sackler Museum. [32], A second woodcut was executed by Hans Burgkmair in Augsburg around the same time as Dürer's in Nuremberg. (Bedini, p.121.) Dürer never saw the animal himself, but the woodcut he prepared became so famous that for two centuries it was the only rhinoceros Europeans ever saw. All Rights Reserved. It is an emblem of the world of his time. He depicts an animal with hard plates that cover its body like sheets of armour, with a gorget at the throat, a solid-looking breastplate, and rivets along the seams. Find more prominent pieces of animal painting at Wikiart.org – best visual art database. Eventually, it was supplanted by more realistic drawings and paintings, particularly those of Clara the rhinoceros, who toured Europe in the 1740s and 1750s. Both of these paintings were more accurate than Dürer's woodcut, and a more realistic conception of the rhinoceros gradually started to displace Dürer's image in the public imagination. The image is based on a written description and brief sketch by an unknown artist of an Indian rhinoceros that had arrived in Lisbon in 1515. Dürer produced a first edition of his woodcut in 1515, in the first state, which is distinguished by only five lines of text in the heading. Accession Number: 19.73.159. [37] This was the seventh of the eight editions in all of the print. Manuel decided to give the rhinoceros as a gift to the Medici Pope Leo X. A fine example was sold at Christie's New York in 2013 for $866,500, setting a new auction record for the artist. 241; S.M.S. British Museum London, United Kingdom. (21.3 x 29.5 cm) trimmed to block line except at top sheet: 9 3/8 x 11 3/4 in. (He never personally saw one.) It is thought to have sold as many as 5,000 copies in Durer’s lifetime and was to become the iconic image that Europeans turned to describe the rhinoceros until well into the eighteenth century. Despite its anatomical inaccuracies, Dürer's woodcut became very popular in Europe and was copied many times in the following three centuries. Albrecht Dürer, a German painter and printmaker living in Nuremberg, was captivated by the strangeness of the animal. [33] His image is truer to life, omitting Dürer's more fanciful additions and including the shackles and chain used to restrain the rhinoceros;[33] however, Dürer's woodcut is more powerful and eclipsed Burgkmair's in popularity. In any event, there was not the popular sensation in Rome that the living beast had caused in Lisbon, although a rhinoceros was depicted in contemporary paintings in Rome by Giovanni da Udine and Raphael. Español : El Rinoceronte de Durero es el nombre que recibe un grabado xilográfico creado por el pintor y grabador alemán Alberto Durero en 1515. The thick folded skin of the Indian rhinoceros has been portrayed as something more like armour plating. King Francis I of France was returning from Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume in Provence, and requested a viewing of the beast. Original upload log (suppr) (actu) 17 juin 2005 à 22:56 . . The rhinoceros was already well accustomed to being kept in captivity. A live rhinoceros was not seen again in Europe until a second specimen, named Abada, arrived from India at the court of Sebastian of Portugal in 1577, being later inherited by Philip II of Spain around 1580. Provenance. Dürer may have anticipated this and deliberately chosen to create a woodcut, rather than a more refined and detailed engraving, as this was cheaper to produce and more copies could be printed. [8] At that time, the rulers of different countries would occasionally send each other exotic animals to be kept in a menagerie. Rhinoceros Albrecht Dürer 1515. It's fair to say that this woodcut is not a fully accurate representation of an Indian rhinoceros through its depiction of the animal being covered in what looks like armor. Martin Lorenz and Joan Pastor: VLNL TpDuro (2019). The German inscription on the woodcut, drawing largely from Pliny's account,[14] reads: On the first of May in the year 1513 AD [sic], the powerful King of Portugal, Manuel of Lisbon, brought such a living animal from India, called the rhinoceros. The excitement of Europe’s expanding horizons and ambitions as well as its increasing knowledge and understanding of the wider world and of nature. This famous sketch of a rhinoceros was created in 1515 by the influential German artist, Albrecht Dürer, reflecting the growing interest in foreign curiosities that had emerged in tangent with the overseas voyages of exploration, commerce and conquest by the Spanish and Portuguese. After resuming its journey, the ship was wrecked in a sudden storm as it passed through the narrows of Porto Venere, north of La Spezia on the coast of Liguria. Developments in printing technology meant that his “Rhinoceros” could be reproduced in much greater quantities than previously and priced to be within the reach of the less wealthy. He places a small twisted horn on its back and gives it scaly legs and saw-like rear quarters. It is the mortal enemy of the elephant. The original document in German has not survived, but a transcript in Italian is held in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale in Florence. Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528), « Le Rhinocerus de Lisbonne », 1515, xylographie sur papier, 21,4×29,8. [5][6] It is possible that a suit of armour was forged for the rhinoceros's fight against the elephant in Portugal, and that these features depicted by Dürer are parts of the armour. Burgkmair corresponded with merchants in Lisbon and Nuremberg, but it is not clear whether he had access to a letter or sketch as Dürer did, perhaps even Dürer's sources, or saw the animal himself in Portugal. ), This page was last edited on 28 December 2020, at 23:58. So he began to a prepare a pen sketch relying on the written description and the sketch made by an unknown artist. Extremely popular, it went through eight editions. The rhinoceros, chained and shackled to the deck to keep it under control, was unable to swim to safety and drowned. Rhinocerus (Rhinoceros) by Albrecht Dürer. [48], Until the late 1930s, Dürer's image appeared in school textbooks in Germany as a faithful image of the rhinoceros;[7] and it remains a powerful artistic influence. Artist: Albrecht Dürer (German, Nuremberg 1471–1528 Nuremberg) Date: 1515. In early 1514, Afonso de Albuquerque, governor of Portuguese India, sent ambassadors to Sultan Muzaffar Shah II, ruler of Cambay (modern Gujarat), to seek permission to build a fort on the island of Diu. Dürer's Rhinoceros is the name commonly given to a woodcut executed by German painter and printmaker Albrecht Dürer in 1515. Home Biography Rhinoceros Legacy of Durer Bibliography Biography Education. Meder 1932 / Dürer Katalog (273.1) Bartsch / Le Peintre graveur (VII.147.136) Dodgson 1903, 1911 / Catalogue of Early German and Flemish Woodcuts in the BM, 2 vols (I.307.125) (first edition) Schoch 2001-04 / Albrecht Dürer, das druckgraphische Werk. ^ Some sources erroneously say 1513, copying a typographical error made by Dürer in one of his original drawings and perpetuated in his woodcut. [3][4], Dürer's woodcut is not an entirely accurate representation of a rhinoceros. La imagen se basaba en … Cet animal avait été offert par le roi du Portugal Manuel Ier au pape Leo X. Creator/Artist; Name: Dürer, Albrecht: Date of birth/death: 1471-05-21: 1528-04-06: Location of birth/death: Deutsch: Nürnberg. When Durer was young he le arned how to be a goldsmith like his father. [40][50], Some sources erroneously say 1513, copying a typographical error made by Dürer in one of his original drawings and perpetuated in his woodcut. He made his own drawing of the animal and soon produced the woodcut that proved to be one of the most commercially successful of its time. Durer never saw the rhinoceros himself. It has a strong pointed horn on the tip of its nose, which it sharpens on stones. Curator Susan Dackerman reveals the story behind the creation of Albrecht Dürer's famous "Rhinoceros" woodcut. Europe was witnessing a revolution in how the animal kingdom was perceived. The rhinoceros’ horn is much larger and imposing than in nature and, indeed, Durer shows the animal as having a second, smaller, spiral horn on its back. © www.AlbrechtDurer.org 2019. In the context of the Renaissance, it was a piece of classical antiquity which had been rediscovered, like a statue or an inscription. It was regarded by Westerners as a true representation of a rhinoceros into the late 18th century. Durer’s text at the top of the woodcut confirms the impression that the image gives of a powerful fighting beast feared even by elephants. [14] The rhinoceros advanced slowly and deliberately towards its foe; the elephant, unaccustomed to the noisy crowd that turned out to witness the spectacle, fled the field in panic before a single blow was struck.[15][16]. [35][39] There is an example in the British Museum. His form is here represented. His decision to issue the image as a woodcut made it accessible to many more people eager to experience something of that excitement. [22] A second letter of unknown authorship was sent from Lisbon to Nuremberg at around the same time, enclosing a sketch by an unknown artist. This may be Dürer's attempt to reflect the rough and almost hairless hide of the Indian rhinoceros, which has wart-like bumps covering its upper legs and shoulders. A duel between a rhinocerus and an elephant?